Cyriocosmus venezuelensis sp. nov. from Venezuela, State of Lara and Carabobo,
is described, diagnosed and keyed. The new species can be distinguished from
all other congeners by its uniformly coloured carapace, dark ventral band on the
abdomen and by the paraembolic apophysis in male palpal bulb being half the
length of the embolus. Cyriocosmus rogerioi Pérez-Miles & Weinmann, 2009 is
placed in the synonymy of Cyriocosmus pribiki Pérez-Miles & Weinmann, 2009, from which
it does not differ in any characters of specific significance.
The selenocosmiine genus Coremiocnemis
Simon 1892 is revised for the first time with six new species included. Five new species are from West Malaysia: C. brachyramosa
sp. nov. from Gunung Ledang, Johor; C. gnathospina
sp. nov. and C. hoggi
sp. nov. from Fraser’s Hill, Selangor; C. jeremyhuffi
sp. nov. from Tapah, Perak, Fraser’s Hill, Selangor to Pahang and C. obscura
sp. nov. from Taiping, Perak to Cameron Highlands, Pahang. C. kotacana
sp. nov. is described from Aceh Teneggara, Sumatra, being the first record of this genus outside Malaysia or Australia. A lectotype and paralectotype
are designated for C. cunicularia
(Simon 1892). All but two of Abraham’s non-type C. valida
Pocock 1895 (Abraham 1924) specimens held in both the NHM and RMBR are newly transferred to C. cunicularia
. Abraham’s two remaining specimens are removed from Coremiocnemis
. C. valida
is redescribed, its former dubious locality is resolved. Zoogeographic considerations of all species are discussed and resolved. Ontogenetic variation within Coremiocnemis
is discussed. Several new characters are introduced. Subfamilial relationships with proposed sister genera Selenocosmia
Ausserer 1871 and Lyrognathus
Pocock 1895 are discussed. A key to species is provided.
In this study Hemirrhagus perezmilesi sp. nov., is described. The males of this species differ from other of the genus in the absence of tibial spurs. This is the first record of Hemirrhagus in Chiapas Mexico apart from fossil records found in amber.
Acanthoscurria turumban sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae) is described based on a male from State Bolivar, Venezuela.
The new species resembles Acanthoscurria antillensis Pocock, 1903 and A. maga Simon, 1892 but can be distinguished
by morphology of the male palpal organ and tibia I apophysis. The genus is recorded for the first time for Venezuela.
The new genus Agnostopelma Pe´rez-Miles & Weinmann is proposed for the type species A. tota n. sp. and A.
gardel n. sp. from Boyaca´, Colombia. Agnostopelma build shelters under stones at high elevation. The new genus is unusual
in lacking tarsal scopulae on its posterior legs and in having few labial cuspules and short leg tarsi in females.
A new species of Hapalopus Ausserer, 1875 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae) from Bolivia is described and illustrated, based in males and females
Two new species of Cyriocosmus (Theraphosinae) from Perú are described
and illustrated. Both differ from most other species of Cyriocosmus in the absence
of a stripped pattern on the abdomen and males with the retrolateral
branch of tibial apophysis distally incrassate and flattened. The cladistic relationships within the genus are reanalyzed including these new taxa. Specimens
of the new species were collected at altitudes of between 2200 and 3000 m,
these records constituting the highest altitudinal record for the genus.
Avicularia diversipes (C.L. Koch 1842) known previously only from its original description is redescribed along with Avicularia sooretama sp. nov. and Avicularia gamba sp. nov. The three species are endemic to Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. With other Avicularia species, they share a procurved anterior eye row, slender embolus and medially folded spermathecae, whereas they have unusual characters, such as a very long and spiraled embolus (A. diversipes) and spermathecae with multilobular apex (A. sooretama sp. nov.). Furthermore, the three species lack a tibial apophysis in
males and share a distinctive color pattern ontogeny that is not known in any other Avicularia species. The conservation status of the three species is discussed, especially with respect to endemism, illegal trafficking and habitat destruction.
The creation of protected areas in southern State of Bahia, Brazil, is recommended, as well as the inclusion of these species in IUCN and CITES lists. Appendices with figures and species information are presented to facilitate correct specimen identification by custom officers, in order to limit illegal traffic.
A new species of Oligoxystre, Oligoxystre diamantinensis n. sp., is described from Brazil. Male can be distinguished from all other Oligoxystre species by the male palpal bulb lacking a small subapical keel on the embolus in conjunction with the embolus length (less than 2.5 times the tegulum length) and by the tibial spur being inserted in a perpendicular angle in relation to the tibia axis. Female can be distinguished by the spermathecae being much more longer than wide, lacking lateral lobes anda large terminal lobe with five smaller lobes around it. Additionally, males and females can be distinguished by the general blue metallic color pattern contrasting with the reddish setae on the abdomen. A key for all described Oligoxystre species is presented. The cladistic relationship of O. diamantinensis sp. n. with the other Oligoxystre species is discussed and data on its habitat is provided.
The two Indian Ischnolocus species, I. decoratus and I. khasiensis are transferred to the genus Chilobrachys Karsch, 1891 based on presence and pattern of stridulatory setae on maxillae and chelicerae. Further, Ischnocolus decoratus is synonymised with Chilobrachys fimbriatus Pocock, 1899.
Hitherto the genus Phormictopus POCOCK, 1901 consisted of 14 species and 2 subspecies of
which 5 were reported from South America. This article reduces the species number to 12.
Five new species are decribed, 4 new synonyms declared, 3 nomina dubia (missing types),
and 3 of the former species belong to other genera (now status “incertae sedis”). The distribution of the genus Phormictopus is restricted to the Greater Antilles.
The genus Magulla Simon 1892 is revalidated and redescribed. The female of the type species M. obesa Simon 1892 is redescribed and the male is described for the first time. Magulla janeirus (Keyserling 1891) is considered a valid species. Magulla symmetrica Bucherl 1949 is transferred to Plesiopelma Pocock 1901, and considered a junior synonym of P. insulare (Mello-Leitao 1923). Additionally, two new species are described from Brazil: M. buecherli n. sp. from Ilhabela, Sao Paulo and M. brescoviti n. sp. from Sao Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul.
We describe Kochiana new genus to accommodate a small Brazilian theraphosine species described originally as Mygale brunnipes by Koch (1842), resulting in Kochiana brunnipes new combination. Recently, specimens were rediscovered in northeastern Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. A preliminary cladistic analysis using equal weights parsimony and implied weights, was carried out to examine its phylogenetic placement. Kochiana new genus was monophyletic in all trees regardless of weighting scheme or concavity used. There is preliminary evidence for Kochiana new genus monophyly and weak evidence for its placement as sister group of Plesiopelma. Kochiana new genus can be characterized by the presence of a hornshaped spermatheca in females and males with a palpal bulb having prolateral accessory keels and a well developed medial crest on the embolus apex.
The tarantula genus Ephebopus Simon 1892 is reviewed and includes the type species, E. murinus (Walckenaer 1837),and E. uatuman Lucas, Silva & Bertani 1992, E. cyanognathus West & Marshall 2000, E. rufescens West & Marshall2000 and Ephebopus foliatus, sp. nov., from Guyana. Ephebopus violaceus Mello-Leitão 1930 is transferred to Tap-inauchenius Ausserer, where it is a senior synonym of Tapinauchenius purpureus Schmidt 1995 new synonymy. Ephebo-pus fossor Pocock 1903 is considered a nomen dubium. Ephebopus occurs in northeastern South America where it isknown only from Brazil, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana. Spiders of the genus are generally fossorial; however,Ephebopus murinus has a developmental stage that is arboreal. A cladistic analysis of the Theraphosidae retrieves theAviculariinae as monophyletic, including Avicularia Lamarck, Iridopelma Pocock 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock 1901,Tapinauchenius, Psalmopoeus Pocock, Ephebopus, Stromatopelma Karsch and Heteroscodra Pocock, having as a syna-pomorphy the well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi I–II that is very laterally extended.
gen. et sp. nov. is described from eastern Cuba and its phylogenetic relationships are discussed. Males are characterized by presenting a denticulate subapical keel on the palpal bulbs, a nodule in the retrolateral side of the palpal tibiae and two-branched tibial spurs on legs I. Both sexes lack stridulating apparatus, possess urticating hairs of types I and III and the retrolateral side of the femora IV covered by a pad of ciliate hairs, in addition to the Theraphosinae synapomorphies. A list of currently recognized 49 genera of Theraphosinae is given, as well as data on its composition and depository institutions
of type specimens of type species. Mygale nigrum
Walckenaer 1837 is recovered as the type species of Homoeomma
Ten theraphosid spiders of the genera Citharognathus
Pocock 1895, Haplopelma
Simon 1892, Chilobrachys
Karsch 1891, Yamia
Kishida 1920 and Selenocosmia
Ausserer 1871 from China are described, including four new species, namely Selenocosmia xinping
sp. nov., S. jiafu
sp. nov., S. xinhuaensis
sp. nov., and Chilobrachys liboensis
is transferred to the genus Chilobrachys
. Additionally, the species Chilobrachys jingzhao
Zhu, Song & Li, 2001 is newly synonymized with Chilobrachys guangxiensis
(Yin & Tan 2000)
In this paper a new species of Brachypelma
from Veracruz, Mexico, Brachypelma kahlenbergi
n. sp., is described. Males and females are almost entirely black with red orange setae on the dorsal face of the opisthosoma. The species described here is named in honour of Herwig KAHLENBERG, Berlin, Germany, who first recognized that it is an undescribed species of Brachypelma.
A new Theraphosinae of the genus Bonnetina is described from Tepoztlan, Morelos, Mexico
A new genus Ami Pérez-Miles is proposed for six new species: A. caxiuana Pérez-Miles, Miglio & Bonaldo, from Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará, Brasil, the type species; A. yupanquii Pérez-Miles, Gabriel & Gallon, from the area of Puyo,
Equador; A. bladesi Pérez-Miles, Gabriel & Gallon, from Isla Colón, Panamá; A. pijaos Jimenez & Bertani, from Ibagué, Tolima, Colombia; A. amazonica Jimenez & Bertani, from Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia; and A. weinmanni Pérez-Miles, from La Azulita, Apure, Venezuela. Avicularia obscura (Ausserer 1875) is transferred to Ami and re-diagnosed.
Diagnostic characters of Ami are the modification of Type I urticating hairs, with unusually longer area b, and one or two subconical processes on retrolateral face of male palpal tibiae. Females of Ami differ further from those of other theraphosid
genera by their highly characteristic spermathecae: paired ventral receptacles attached to an almost discrete, semicircular, sclerotized back-plate.
Present paper describes two species of spiders discovered during a study on the
diversity of spiders of Kerala state, India. These species belong to the genera
Sason (Barychelidae) and Annandaliella (Theraphosidae). Annandaliella ernaku-
lamensis new species discovered from Ernakulam is characterized by a tibial
apophysis in the form of short broad lobe of comb-like series of stout black
spines and a characteristically different stridulatory spines on the chelicerae.
Sason robustum is a redescription of the species based on a new specimen.
Both species are illustrated and fully described during the study. SEM studies
were undertaken in A. ernakulamensis sp. nov.
Two new species of Pamphobeteus Pocock 1901 are described from Brazil: Pamphobeteus crassifemur sp. nov. and
Pamphobeteus grandis sp. nov.; Pamphobeteus nigricolor, formerly described from Colombia, Ecuador and Bolivia, is
recorded from Brazil and its distribution in Ecuador and Bolivia is questioned. A new type of stridulatory organ is
described from legs III and IV of P. crassifemur sp. nov. The structure consists of spiniform setae. Stridulation occurs
when the spider moves the legs III and IV, sometimes while shedding urticating hairs.
Chaetopelma Ausserer 1871 and Nesiergus Simon 1903 are revised. Cratorrhagus Simon 1891 is considered a junior synonym of Chaetopelma. Cratorrhagus tetramerus (Simon 1873) and the female of Cratorrhagus concolor (Simon 1873) are conspecific with C. olivaceum (C. L. Koch 1841). Ischnocolus gracilis Ausserer 1871, Ischnocolus syriacus Ausserer 1871, Chaetopelma shabati Hassan 1950 and Ischnocolus jerusalemensis Smith 1990 are also treated here as junior synonyms of C. olivaceum. Chaetopelma adenense Simon 1890 is proposed as a junior synonym of Ischnocolus jickelii L. Koch 1875. Chaetopelma gardineri Hirst 1911 is transferred to Nesiergus. Hence, Chaetopelma comprises three valid species: C. olivaceum (C. L. Koch 1841); C. karlamani Vollmer 1997; C. concolor (Simon 1873) n. comb. from the Middle East and northeastern Africa. Nesiergus, which appears endemic to the Seychelles archipelago, now comprises three valid species: N. gardineri (Hirst 1911) n. comb.; N. halophilus Benoit 1978; N. insulanus Simon 1903.
The genus Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892 is revised. The type-species, T. nubilus Simon, 1892, is redescribed and three new species are described from the state of Bahia, Brazil: T. amadoi sp. nov., T. bethaniae sp. nov. and T. caymmii sp. nov. In addition, Tmesiphanthes physopus Mello-Leitão, 1926 and T. minensis Mello-Leitão, 1943 are transferred to Plesiopelma Pocock, 1901. T. chickeringi is considered species inquirenda.
The genus Plesiophrictus belongs to the subfamily Ischnocolinae of the mygalomorph family Theraphosidae and is reported from China, India, Micronesia and Sri Lanka (Platnick, 2007). Amongst the Indian genera of the family Theraphosidae, Plesiophrictus is a relatively species-rich genus (Siliwal et al., 2005; Siliwal & Molur, 2007). Pocock (1899) established the genus Plesiophrictus with description of three species, P. millardi and P. collinus from India and P. tenuipes from Sri Lanka, assigning P. millardi as the type species. Later, a number of new species were described from India under this genus (Pocock, 1900; Gravely, 1915, 1935; Tikader, 1977). After the establishment of the genus Plesiophrictus, the two Indian species, Ischnocolus linteatus Simon, 1891 and Stichoplastus fabrei Simon, 1892 were transferred to this genus by Pocock (1900) and Simon (1903), respectively. This genus was considered endemic to South Asia until the Micronesian species Ischnocolella senffti Strand, 1907 was transferred to this genus by Roewer (1963). Recently, Yin & Tan (2000) described a new species, P. guangxiensis from China. Till date, 16 species have been reported under this genus from the world, of which 13 are endemic to India, one endemic each to China and Sri Lanka and one endemic to the islands of Micronesia (a conglomerate of 9 countries) (Platnick, 2007). Most of the species described from India are known only from the type localities; information on range and geographical variations are limited. More than fifty percent of the species were described a century ago based on very few morphological characters, missing details used in present day taxonomy like morphometry of legs, description of genital structure especially of female, illustrations, sternum, male palp and female spermatheca (see Simon, 1891, 1892; Pocock, 1899, 1900; Strand, 1907; Gravely, 1915, 1935). The more recent descriptions of P. meghalayaensis and P. mahabaleshwari by Tikader (1977) are also incomplete as they lack morphometry of legs, comparison with other species and diagnosis for the species. This paper is an effort to describe a new species based on a female specimen after comparing the available prominent characters with other known species. The objective of this paper is not only to describe a new species, but also provide South Asian arachnologists with a standard description pattern on theraphosids or any mygalomorph spider along with pictures (see Images in the web supplement) in addition to figures as a useful tool for comparative studies. None of the past descriptions of Plesiophrictus spp. includes notes on natural history or ecology, which we have added as noted during our study.