Descripción de Acanthoscurria turumban sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae) y primer registro del género para Venezuela.

Carlos Rodríguez-Manzanilla, Rogério Bertani ,2010

Acanthoscurria turumban sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae) is described based on a male from State Bolivar, Venezuela. The new species resembles Acanthoscurria antillensis Pocock, 1903 and A. maga Simon, 1892 but can be distinguished by morphology of the male palpal organ and tibia I apophysis. The genus is recorded for the first time for Venezuela.

Agnostopelma: a new genus of tarantula without a scopula on leg IV (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Fernando Pérez-Miles, Dirk Weinmann ,2010

The new genus Agnostopelma Pe´rez-Miles & Weinmann is proposed for the type species A. tota n. sp. and A. gardel n. sp. from Boyaca´, Colombia. Agnostopelma build shelters under stones at high elevation. The new genus is unusual in lacking tarsal scopulae on its posterior legs and in having few labial cuspules and short leg tarsi in females.

Two new species of Cyriocosmus Simon, 1903 from Peru and the highest altitude record for the genus (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae)

Fernando Pérez-Miles, Dirk Weinmann ,2009

Two new species of Cyriocosmus (Theraphosinae) from Perú are described and illustrated. Both differ from most other species of Cyriocosmus in the absence of a stripped pattern on the abdomen and males with the retrolateral branch of tibial apophysis distally incrassate and flattened. The cladistic relationships within the genus are reanalyzed including these new taxa. Specimens of the new species were collected at altitudes of between 2200 and 3000 m, these records constituting the highest altitudinal record for the genus.

Description of two new species of Avicularia Lamarck 1818 and redescription of Avicularia diversipes (C.L. Koch 1842) (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) , three possibly threatened Brazilian species

Rogério Bertani, Caroline Sayuri Fukushima ,2009

Avicularia diversipes (C.L. Koch 1842) known previously only from its original description is redescribed along with Avicularia sooretama sp. nov. and Avicularia gamba sp. nov. The three species are endemic to Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. With other Avicularia species, they share a procurved anterior eye row, slender embolus and medially folded spermathecae, whereas they have unusual characters, such as a very long and spiraled embolus (A. diversipes) and spermathecae with multilobular apex (A. sooretama sp. nov.). Furthermore, the three species lack a tibial apophysis in males and share a distinctive color pattern ontogeny that is not known in any other Avicularia species. The conservation status of the three species is discussed, especially with respect to endemism, illegal trafficking and habitat destruction. The creation of protected areas in southern State of Bahia, Brazil, is recommended, as well as the inclusion of these species in IUCN and CITES lists. Appendices with figures and species information are presented to facilitate correct specimen identification by custom officers, in order to limit illegal traffic.

A new species of Oligoxystre Vellard 1924 (Araneae, Theraphosidae) from Brazil.

Rogério Bertani, Thiago dos Santos, Alexandre Ferreira Righi ,2009

A new species of Oligoxystre, Oligoxystre diamantinensis n. sp., is described from Brazil. Male can be distinguished from all other Oligoxystre species by the male palpal bulb lacking a small subapical keel on the embolus in conjunction with the embolus length (less than 2.5 times the tegulum length) and by the tibial spur being inserted in a perpendicular angle in relation to the tibia axis. Female can be distinguished by the spermathecae being much more longer than wide, lacking lateral lobes anda large terminal lobe with five smaller lobes around it. Additionally, males and females can be distinguished by the general blue metallic color pattern contrasting with the reddish setae on the abdomen. A key for all described Oligoxystre species is presented. The cladistic relationship of O. diamantinensis sp. n. with the other Oligoxystre species is discussed and data on its habitat is provided.

Zur Kenntnis der Gattung Phormictopus Pocock, 1901 - einem Faunenelement der Grossen Antillen (Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Jan-Peter Rudloff ,2008

Hitherto the genus Phormictopus POCOCK, 1901 consisted of 14 species and 2 subspecies of which 5 were reported from South America. This article reduces the species number to 12. Five new species are decribed, 4 new synonyms declared, 3 nomina dubia (missing types), and 3 of the former species belong to other genera (now status “incertae sedis”). The distribution of the genus Phormictopus is restricted to the Greater Antilles.

Revalidation and revision of the genus Magulla Simon 1892 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae)

Rafael Prezzi Indicatti, Sylvia M. Lucas, José Paulo Leite Guadanucci, Flávio Uemori Yamamoto ,2008

The genus Magulla Simon 1892 is revalidated and redescribed. The female of the type species M. obesa Simon 1892 is redescribed and the male is described for the first time. Magulla janeirus (Keyserling 1891) is considered a valid species. Magulla symmetrica Bucherl 1949 is transferred to Plesiopelma Pocock 1901, and considered a junior synonym of P. insulare (Mello-Leitao 1923). Additionally, two new species are described from Brazil: M. buecherli n. sp. from Ilhabela, Sao Paulo and M. brescoviti n. sp. from Sao Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul.

The identity of Mygale brunnipes C.L. Koch 1842 (Araneae, Theraphosidae), with a redescription of the species and the description of a new genus

Caroline Sayuri Fukushima, Roberto Hiroaki Nagahama, Rogério Bertani ,2008

We describe Kochiana new genus to accommodate a small Brazilian theraphosine species described originally as Mygale brunnipes by Koch (1842), resulting in Kochiana brunnipes new combination. Recently, specimens were rediscovered in northeastern Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. A preliminary cladistic analysis using equal weights parsimony and implied weights, was carried out to examine its phylogenetic placement. Kochiana new genus was monophyletic in all trees regardless of weighting scheme or concavity used. There is preliminary evidence for Kochiana new genus monophyly and weak evidence for its placement as sister group of Plesiopelma. Kochiana new genus can be characterized by the presence of a hornshaped spermatheca in females and males with a palpal bulb having prolateral accessory keels and a well developed medial crest on the embolus apex.

Review and cladistic analysis of the Neotropical tarantula genus Ephebopus Simon 1892 (Araneae: Theraphosidae) with notes on the Aviculariinae

Rick C. West, Samuel D Marshall, Caroline Sayuri Fukushima, Rogério Bertani ,2008

The tarantula genus Ephebopus Simon 1892 is reviewed and includes the type species, E. murinus (Walckenaer 1837),and E. uatuman Lucas, Silva & Bertani 1992, E. cyanognathus West & Marshall 2000, E. rufescens West & Marshall2000 and Ephebopus foliatus, sp. nov., from Guyana. Ephebopus violaceus Mello-Leitão 1930 is transferred to Tap-inauchenius Ausserer, where it is a senior synonym of Tapinauchenius purpureus Schmidt 1995 new synonymy. Ephebo-pus fossor Pocock 1903 is considered a nomen dubium. Ephebopus occurs in northeastern South America where it isknown only from Brazil, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana. Spiders of the genus are generally fossorial; however,Ephebopus murinus has a developmental stage that is arboreal. A cladistic analysis of the Theraphosidae retrieves theAviculariinae as monophyletic, including Avicularia Lamarck, Iridopelma Pocock 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock 1901,Tapinauchenius, Psalmopoeus Pocock, Ephebopus, Stromatopelma Karsch and Heteroscodra Pocock, having as a syna-pomorphy the well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi I–II that is very laterally extended.

Description of Cubanana cristinae, a new genus and species of theraphosine tarantula (Araneae: Theraphosidae) from the island of Cuba

David Ortiz ,2008

Cubanana cristinae gen. et sp. nov. is described from eastern Cuba and its phylogenetic relationships are discussed. Males are characterized by presenting a denticulate subapical keel on the palpal bulbs, a nodule in the retrolateral side of the palpal tibiae and two-branched tibial spurs on legs I. Both sexes lack stridulating apparatus, possess urticating hairs of types I and III and the retrolateral side of the femora IV covered by a pad of ciliate hairs, in addition to the Theraphosinae synapomorphies. A list of currently recognized 49 genera of Theraphosinae is given, as well as data on its composition and depository institutions of type specimens of type species. Mygale nigrum Walckenaer 1837 is recovered as the type species of Homoeomma Ausserer 1871.

Revision of the theraphosid spiders from China (Araneae: Mygalomorphae)

Ming-Sheng Zhu, Rui Zhang ,2008

Ten theraphosid spiders of the genera Citharognathus Pocock 1895, Haplopelma Simon 1892, Chilobrachys Karsch 1891, Yamia Kishida 1920 and Selenocosmia Ausserer 1871 from China are described, including four new species, namely Selenocosmia xinping sp. nov., S. jiafu sp. nov., S. xinhuaensis sp. nov., and Chilobrachys liboensis sp. nov. Plesiophrictus guangxiensis is transferred to the genus Chilobrachys. Additionally, the species Chilobrachys jingzhao Zhu, Song & Li, 2001 is newly synonymized with Chilobrachys guangxiensis (Yin & Tan 2000)

Eine neue Brachypelma-Art aus Mexiko (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Jan-Peter Rudloff ,2008

In this paper a new species of Brachypelma from Veracruz, Mexico, Brachypelma kahlenbergi n. sp., is described. Males and females are almost entirely black with red orange setae on the dorsal face of the opisthosoma. The species described here is named in honour of Herwig KAHLENBERG, Berlin, Germany, who first recognized that it is an undescribed species of Brachypelma.

Ami, a new Theraphosid genus from Central and South America, with the description of six new species (Araneae: Mygalomorphae)

Fernando Pérez-Miles, Ray Gabriel, Laura Tavares Miglio, Alexandre Bonaldo, Richard C Gallon, Juan Jacobo Jimenez, Rogério Bertani ,2008

A new genus Ami Pérez-Miles is proposed for six new species: A. caxiuana Pérez-Miles, Miglio & Bonaldo, from Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará, Brasil, the type species; A. yupanquii Pérez-Miles, Gabriel & Gallon, from the area of Puyo, Equador; A. bladesi Pérez-Miles, Gabriel & Gallon, from Isla Colón, Panamá; A. pijaos Jimenez & Bertani, from Ibagué, Tolima, Colombia; A. amazonica Jimenez & Bertani, from Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia; and A. weinmanni Pérez-Miles, from La Azulita, Apure, Venezuela. Avicularia obscura (Ausserer 1875) is transferred to Ami and re-diagnosed. Diagnostic characters of Ami are the modification of Type I urticating hairs, with unusually longer area b, and one or two subconical processes on retrolateral face of male palpal tibiae. Females of Ami differ further from those of other theraphosid genera by their highly characteristic spermathecae: paired ventral receptacles attached to an almost discrete, semicircular, sclerotized back-plate.

Description of two mygalomorph spiders from south India (Araneae: Barychelidae, Theraphosidae).

Sunil K Jose, P A Sebastian ,2008

Present paper describes two species of spiders discovered during a study on the diversity of spiders of Kerala state, India. These species belong to the genera Sason (Barychelidae) and Annandaliella (Theraphosidae). Annandaliella ernaku- lamensis new species discovered from Ernakulam is characterized by a tibial apophysis in the form of short broad lobe of comb-like series of stout black spines and a characteristically different stridulatory spines on the chelicerae. Sason robustum is a redescription of the species based on a new specimen. Both species are illustrated and fully described during the study. SEM studies were undertaken in A. ernakulamensis sp. nov.

Two new species of Pamphobeteus Pocock 1901 (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae) from Brazil, with a new type of stridulatory organ

Rogério Bertani, Caroline Sayuri Fukushima, Pedro Ismael da Silva Júnior ,2008

Two new species of Pamphobeteus Pocock 1901 are described from Brazil: Pamphobeteus crassifemur sp. nov. and Pamphobeteus grandis sp. nov.; Pamphobeteus nigricolor, formerly described from Colombia, Ecuador and Bolivia, is recorded from Brazil and its distribution in Ecuador and Bolivia is questioned. A new type of stridulatory organ is described from legs III and IV of P. crassifemur sp. nov. The structure consists of spiniform setae. Stridulation occurs when the spider moves the legs III and IV, sometimes while shedding urticating hairs.

A revision of the spider genera Chaetopelma Ausserer 1871 and Nesiergus Simon 1903 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Ischnocolinae)

José Paulo Leite Guadanucci, Richard C Gallon ,2008

Chaetopelma Ausserer 1871 and Nesiergus Simon 1903 are revised. Cratorrhagus Simon 1891 is considered a junior synonym of Chaetopelma. Cratorrhagus tetramerus (Simon 1873) and the female of Cratorrhagus concolor (Simon 1873) are conspecific with C. olivaceum (C. L. Koch 1841). Ischnocolus gracilis Ausserer 1871, Ischnocolus syriacus Ausserer 1871, Chaetopelma shabati Hassan 1950 and Ischnocolus jerusalemensis Smith 1990 are also treated here as junior synonyms of C. olivaceum. Chaetopelma adenense Simon 1890 is proposed as a junior synonym of Ischnocolus jickelii L. Koch 1875. Chaetopelma gardineri Hirst 1911 is transferred to Nesiergus. Hence, Chaetopelma comprises three valid species: C. olivaceum (C. L. Koch 1841); C. karlamani Vollmer 1997; C. concolor (Simon 1873) n. comb. from the Middle East and northeastern Africa. Nesiergus, which appears endemic to the Seychelles archipelago, now comprises three valid species: N. gardineri (Hirst 1911) n. comb.; N. halophilus Benoit 1978; N. insulanus Simon 1903.

Revision of the genus Tmesiphantes Simon (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae)

Flávio Uemori Yamamoto, Sylvia M. Lucas, José Paulo Leite Guadanucci, Rafael Prezzi Indicatti ,2007

The genus Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892 is revised. The type-species, T. nubilus Simon, 1892, is redescribed and three new species are described from the state of Bahia, Brazil: T. amadoi sp. nov., T. bethaniae sp. nov. and T. caymmii sp. nov. In addition, Tmesiphanthes physopus Mello-Leitão, 1926 and T. minensis Mello-Leitão, 1943 are transferred to Plesiopelma Pocock, 1901. T. chickeringi is considered species inquirenda.

A new species of the genus Plesiophrictus (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Ischnocolinae) from western Ghats, India

Manju Siliwal, Sanjay Molur, Robert John Raven ,2007

The genus Plesiophrictus belongs to the subfamily Ischnocolinae of the mygalomorph family Theraphosidae and is reported from China, India, Micronesia and Sri Lanka (Platnick, 2007). Amongst the Indian genera of the family Theraphosidae, Plesiophrictus is a relatively species-rich genus (Siliwal et al., 2005; Siliwal & Molur, 2007). Pocock (1899) established the genus Plesiophrictus with description of three species, P. millardi and P. collinus from India and P. tenuipes from Sri Lanka, assigning P. millardi as the type species. Later, a number of new species were described from India under this genus (Pocock, 1900; Gravely, 1915, 1935; Tikader, 1977). After the establishment of the genus Plesiophrictus, the two Indian species, Ischnocolus linteatus Simon, 1891 and Stichoplastus fabrei Simon, 1892 were transferred to this genus by Pocock (1900) and Simon (1903), respectively. This genus was considered endemic to South Asia until the Micronesian species Ischnocolella senffti Strand, 1907 was transferred to this genus by Roewer (1963). Recently, Yin & Tan (2000) described a new species, P. guangxiensis from China. Till date, 16 species have been reported under this genus from the world, of which 13 are endemic to India, one endemic each to China and Sri Lanka and one endemic to the islands of Micronesia (a conglomerate of 9 countries) (Platnick, 2007). Most of the species described from India are known only from the type localities; information on range and geographical variations are limited. More than fifty percent of the species were described a century ago based on very few morphological characters, missing details used in present day taxonomy like morphometry of legs, description of genital structure especially of female, illustrations, sternum, male palp and female spermatheca (see Simon, 1891, 1892; Pocock, 1899, 1900; Strand, 1907; Gravely, 1915, 1935). The more recent descriptions of P. meghalayaensis and P. mahabaleshwari by Tikader (1977) are also incomplete as they lack morphometry of legs, comparison with other species and diagnosis for the species. This paper is an effort to describe a new species based on a female specimen after comparing the available prominent characters with other known species. The objective of this paper is not only to describe a new species, but also provide South Asian arachnologists with a standard description pattern on theraphosids or any mygalomorph spider along with pictures (see Images in the web supplement) in addition to figures as a useful tool for comparative studies. None of the past descriptions of Plesiophrictus spp. includes notes on natural history or ecology, which we have added as noted during our study.

A revision of the Neotropical spider genus Oligoxystre Vellard 1924 (Theraphosidae, Ischnocolinae)

José Paulo Leite Guadanucci ,2007

The genus Oligoxystre Vellard 1924 is revised. Pseudoligoxystre Vol 2001 is synonymized with Oligoxystre and its typespecies, P. bolivianum Vol 2001, is considered valid. The type-specimen of Oligoxystre auratum Vellard 1924, type-species by original designation, is considered lost. No additional material matching the original description was found and therefore the species is diagnosed from the original description. Four new species, all from Brazil, are also described: O. caatinga, O. dominguense, O. tucuruiense, and O. rufoniger. Data on natural history of O. bolivianum from field and captivity observations are presented. The genus Cenobiopelma Mello-Leitão & Arlé 1934 ) is based upon Cenobiopelma mimeticum Mello-Leitão & Arlé 1934 for which no type was ever designated and hence both are considered nomina nuda.

Cyriocosmus perezmilesi sp. n. from Bolivia (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Radan Kaderka ,2007

Cyriocosmus perezmilesi sp. n. from Bolivia, Beni province, is described, diag- nosed and keyed inside the inner group of Cyriocosmus Simon 1903 which is represented by species with reduced paraembolic apophysis in male palpal bulb structures. The new species can be distinguished from all other cogeners, ex- cept C. blenginii Pérez-Miles 1998, by uniformly coloured carapace and lateral four-striped pattern on abdomen. C. perezmilesi sp. n. differs from C. blenginii by presence of the reduced paraembolic apophysis and bicolour femora (reddish brown, distally black).

Description of Guyruita gen. nov. and two new species (Ischnocolinae, Theraphosidae)

José Paulo Leite Guadanucci, Sylvia M. Lucas, Rafael Prezzi Indicatti, Flávio Uemori Yamamoto ,2007

The genus Guyruita gen. nov. and two new species from Brazil are described. Holothele waikoshiemi (Bertani & Araújo, 2005) from Venezuela is transferred here to the new genus. Guyruita gen. nov. differs from the remaining Ischnocolinae by the following features: labium densely occupied by a lot of cuspules (more than 100), intercheliceral intumescence absent, posterior sternal sigilla remote from margin, tarsal claws without teeth, tarsal scopula I-II undivided (tarsus II with a line of sparse setae, which does not divide the scopula), III-IV divided.