A new species of Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892, T. aridai sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on three males and three females collected at the Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, Santarém, state of Pará, Brazil. Males can be distinguished from T. perp Guadanucci & Silva, 2012 by the palpal bulb with an inconspicous tegular basal projection, but presenting a very slender embolus with shorter keels not extending to the tip, and from T. nubilus Simon, 1892 by the tibial apophysis with two similarly sized branches, the prolateral one with a strong spine on the retrolateral margin. Females resemble T. nubilus by the aspect of the seminal receptacle but the constriction near the apex is less evident and apex shape is irregular. The new species represents the first record of Tmesiphantes from the Amazonian region, bringing the total number of species to eight.
In this study the Brazilian Amazonian species of Acanthoscurria Ausserer, 1871 are redescribed: A. geniculata (C.L. Koch, 1841), A. tarda Pocock, 1903, A. juruenicola Mello-Leitão, 1923, A. theraphosoides (Doleschall, 1871). Acanthoscurria simoensi Vol, 2000 and A. insubtilis Simon, 1892, previously known from French Guyana and Bolivia, respectively, are recorded for Brazil by the first time. The females of these two species are described for the first time and a new species, A. belterrensis sp. nov., is described from Belterra, Pará, Brazil. In addition, four synonymies are established: A. transamazonica Piza, 1972 as junior synonym of A. geniculata; A. ferina Simon, 1892 and A. brocklehursti F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1896 of A. theraphosoides; and A. xinguensis Timotheo da Costa, 1960 of A. juruenicola. Acanthoscurria belterrensis sp. nov. resembles A. gomesiana Mello-Leitão, 1923 by the color pattern and structure of sexual organs. The male can be distinguished by the less curved embolus and the very projected prolateral superior and prolateral inferior keels, giving a triangular aspect to the basis of embolus, and the female seminal receptacles presenting a larger and narrower basis.
A new genus, Catanduba
, is proposed and supported on the cladistic analysis with the following synapomorphies: embolus tapering abruptly from half of the length, embolus tooth associated with PIK and a triangular basal nodule on male metatarsus I. Homoeomma simoni and Plesiopelma flavohirtum are transferred to Catanduba and five new species are described: C. tuskae
, C. araguaia
, C. piauiensis
, C. canabrava
and C. peruacu
. The species occur mainly in central Brazil,
in Cerrado areas, with some species also occurring in Atlantic forest (C. tuskae
sp. n. ) and Caatinga (C. piauiensis sp. n.
and C. peruacu