Proshapalopus marimbai, a new tarantula species (Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) and first genus record from Colombia

Carlos Perafán, Dayana Valencia-Cuéllar ,2018

A new species of Proshapalopus Mello-Leit~ao, 1923, distributed in the Southwest Colombia in the Choco Region, is described. A morphological cladistic analysis based on the previous matrix of a Theraphosinae group confirmed the inclusion of this species within Proshapalopus. The new species, Proshapalopus marimbai n. sp., can be distinguished from other species of the genus mainly by the reduced number of labial cuspules, around 40; in contrast the other species having over 100. Males can be distinguished by the thickened femur III, presence of intermediate urticating setae type I-III only, palpal bulb with a considerably long prolateral inferior keel (from ventral median depression to embolus apex) and the accessory keel pronounced distally. Females can be distinguished for lacking urticating setae type III and the non-incrassated tibia IV. This discovery constitutes the fourth species described for Proshapalopus and the first record for Colombia, expanding the geographical distribution of the genus, until now known for Brazil only. Other aspects of distribution and the phylogenetic relationship of the new species are also discussed here.

First record of Homoeomma Ausserer, 1871 in Chile and description of two new species

Rubén Montenegro V., Milenko A. Aguilera, María Eugenia Casanueva ,2018

Two new species of Homoeomma Ausserer, 1871 from south-central Chile are described, diagnosed and illustrated based on males and females. Males of Homoeomma chilensis spec. nov. and H. orellanai spec. nov. differ from other species of the genus by the palpal bulb morphology. Females differ by the shape of spermathecae. Specimens were captured in regions of O’Higgins, Maule and Biobío, Chile. These are the first species of the genus recorded in the biogeographic province of Santiago, west of the Andes. This is a novel finding, given that until now, known species of Homoeomma are only present east of the Andes.

A first phylogenetic analysis reveals a new arboreal tarantula genus from South America with description of a new species and two new species of Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae)

Martin Hüsser ,2018

Based on molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses a new genus of Theraphosidae is described, Pseudoclamoris gen. n. Tapinauchenius gigas and Tapinauchenius elenae are transferred to Pseudoclamoris and a new species of Pseudoclamoris from the Amazon Region is described: P. burgessi sp. n. Two new species of Tapinauchenius from the Caribbean are described: T. rasti sp. n. and T. polybotes sp. n. Tapinauchenius subcaeruleus is considered a nomen dubium. Psalmopoeinae subfamily is diagnosed based on molecular and morphological phylogenies, and Pseudoclamoris gen. n. and Ephebopus Simon, 1892 are included. A taxonomic key for Psalmopoeinae genera Tapinauchenius, Pseudoclamoris, Psalmopoeus, and Ephebopus is provided.

Umbyquyra gen. nov., a new tarantula spider genus from the Neotropical region (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae), with a description of eight new species

Fabio de F. Gargiulo, Antonio Domingos Brescovit, Sylvia M. Lucas ,2018

Umbyquyra gen. nov., a new Theraphosinae genus with stridulatory bristles on the palpal trocanther of pedipalp trochanter and first leg, is proposed. The genus differs from the other genera with stridulatory bristles on the same segments, Acanthoscurria Ausserer, 1871, Cyrtopholis Simon, 1892, Longilyra Gabriel, 2014 and Nesipelma Schmidt & Kovarik, 1996, by having a palpal bulb with a very short and acuminate embolus and four short keels; separated tibial apophysis; and female spermathecae resembling those of Cyrtopholis, with two seminal receptacles with elongated ducts emerging from a common area. Cyrtopholis palmarum Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945 and C. schmidti Rudloff, 1996 from Brazil and Acanthoscurria acuminata Schmidt & Tesmoingt in Schmidt, 2005 from Bolivia are transferred to the new genus. The female of Umbyquyra palmarum (Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945) gen. et comb. nov. and the male of U. schmidti (Rudloff, 1996) gen. et comb. nov. are described for the first time. Cyrtopholis zorodes Mello-Leitão, 1923 is considered a junior synonym of Acanthoscurria gomesiana Mello-Leitão, 1923 and Cyrtopholis meridionalis (Keyserling, 1891) is considered a nomen dubium. Eight new species from Brazil are described: Umbyquyra paranaiba gen. et sp. nov., U. cuiaba gen. et sp. nov., U. araguaia gen. et sp. nov., U. sapezal gen. et sp. nov., U. belterra gen. et sp. nov., U. caxiuana gen. et sp. nov., U. tucurui gen. et sp. nov. and U. tapajos gen. et sp. nov. Data and maps on the geographic distribution are provided.

The Neotropical genus Hapalotremus Simon, 1903 (Araneae: Theraphosidae), with the description of seven new species and the highest altitude record for the family

Nelson Ferretti, Patricio E. Cavallo, Juan C. Chaparro, Duniesky Ríos Tamayo, Tracie A. Seimon, Rick C. West ,2018

New specimens of the genus Hapalotremus (Theraphosinae) are revised based on the examination of types and additional material collected in Argentina, Bolivia and Peru. A new generic diagnosis is proposed. New information and illustrations are provided for known species and seven new species were recognized and are newly described and illustrated. Hence, Hapalotremus comprises 10 valid species, distributed along the Andes and Yungas in western South America. All species are keyed and mapped. New taxonomic features are included in the descriptions and the detail of embolus keels morphology and positions are described for the first time for the genus. Information on species habitat is included. The highest altitude record for a Theraphosidae spider, living at 4524 m above sea level, is reported.

Description of the female of Ami bladesi Pérez- Miles, Gabriel & Gallon, 2008 (Araneae: Theraphosidae), with notes on its distribution, ecology, and behaviour

Witold Lapinski, Ray Gabriel, Fernando Pérez-Miles ,2018

The female sex of Ami bladesi Pérez-Miles et al., 2008 is described, based on three specimens from northeastern Costa Rica and one specimen from the type locality in Panama. It is the first record of this species and genus from Costa Rica. In addition to the modified urticating hairs of type I, urticating hairs of type III were found in both females and males from Costa Rica and Panama. Notes on the distribution, ecology, and behaviour of A. bladesi are included.

Re-description of the male of Psalmopoeus pulcher Petrunkevitch, 1925 with the first description of the female (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel, Danniella Sherwood ,2018

The holotype male of Psalmopoeus pulcher Petrunkevitch, 1925 is re-described and the female is described for the first time. Colour ontogeny, intraspecific morphological variation and sexual dimorphism are discussed and its biogeographical distribution mapped.

Five new cave-dwelling species of Hemirrhagus Simon 1903 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae), with notes on the generic distribution and novel morphological features

Jorge Ivan Mendoza Marroquín, Oscar F. Francke ,2018

The suborder Mygalomorphae is generally poorly represented in the cave faunas of the world. The genus Hemirrhagus is endemic to Mexico and has 22 described species. It is the only one with epigean, troglophile and troglobitic species. Lack of urticating setae, loss of eye pigmentation and ocular reduction are interpreted as evolutionary reversals related to their troglobitic habits. From five troglobitic species in the genus, only the male of Hemirrhagus stygius is known. Five new troglobitic species are described with both sexes: Hemirrhagus akheronteus sp. nov., Hemirrhagus billsteelei sp. nov., Hemirrhaugus diablo sp. nov., Hemirrhagus kalebi sp. nov. and Hemirrhagus sprousei sp. nov. The female of Hemirrhagus chilango is described for the first time. Hemirrhagus akheronteus sp. nov. has a group of spinose setae on the opisthosoma; this setal modification was never reported in any other theraphosid spiders. Females of Hemirrhagus kalebi sp. nov. and Hemirrhagus sprousei sp. nov. lay fixed hammock egg sacs, which is an unusual behavior among species in Theraphosinae. Two stridulating setae previously reported only in epigean species are present on some of the new troglobites.

A new synonym in the subfamily Thrigmopoeinae Pocock, 1900 (Araneae, Theraphosidae)

Pradeep M. Sankaran, Pothalil Antony Sebastian ,2018

As the species Haploclastus devamatha Prasanth & Jose, 2014 is indistinguishable from Thrigmopoeus psychedelicus Sanap & Mirza, 2014, the latter is herein considered junior synonym of the former. Occurrence of polychromatism in H. devamatha is noted, and two distinct colour morphs of the species are recognised, a pink form and a blue form. The natural history and conservation of the species are discussed and its known distribution is updated.

Two new species of Guyruita Guadanucci et al., 2007 (Araneae, Theraphosidae) from Brazil

Caroline Sayuri Fukushima, Rogério Bertani ,2018

Guyruita Guadanucci et al., 2007 is an ischnocoline genus with three described species from Brazil and Venezuela. Two new Brazilian species from the states of Rio Grande do Norte (Guyruita isae n. sp.) and Espírito Santo (Guyruita giupponii n. sp.) are described. A key is provided for identification of Guyruita species. Map with records and information on species habitat are also given.

Two new Dolichothele Mello-Leitão, 1923 species from Brazil and Bolivia (Araneae, Theraphosidae)

Irene Soliz Revollo, Pedro Ismael da Silva Júnior, Rogério Bertani ,2017

Two new species of Dolichothele Mello-Leitão, 1923 are described from Brazil and Bolivia, D. mottai sp. n. from Distrito Federal and the state of Goiás, Brazil, and D. camargorum sp. n. from the state of Rondônia, Brazil, and the La Paz region, Bolivia. Males of the two new species resemble Dolichothele bolivianum (Vol, 2001) in having a small subapical keel on the distal embolus and females in particular by the short spermatheca. Dolichothele bolivianum is redescribed, and its geographical distribution is herein restricted to Bolivia and the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil.

Description of the male of Bistriopelma matuskai Kaderka 2015 and a new species of Bistriopelma from Peru (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Radan Kaderka ,2017

The male of Bistriopelma matuskai Kaderka 2015 is described and illustrated, the species is rediagnosed and complemented by new biogeographical data. Additionally, a new species of Bistriopelma, B. titicaca sp. nov., from the Puno region in Peru is described, diagnosed and illustrated. An updated general description and distribution map of Bistriopelma are provided.

Diversity of iron cave-dwelling mygalomorph spiders from Pará, Brazil, with description of three new species (Araneae)

Rafael Fonseca-Ferreira, Robson de Almeida Zampaulo, José Paulo Leite Guadanucci ,2017

Mygalomorph spiders are rarely found in caves and most of the records appear as accidental or restricted to small populations. The present study took place in iron formations in Carajás region, southeastern Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon rainforest. Each cave was sampled twice: dry season (from May to October) and wet season (from November to April). Of the 242 caves sampled, we found mygalomorphs in 98 (40%). The survey yielded 254 specimens, 223 (87.8%) juveniles. Of the 14 species recorded, nine were represented by adults: Dolichothele tucuruiense (Guadanucci, 2007), Hapalopus aymara Perdomo, Panzera & Pérez-Miles, 2009, Acanthoscurria geniculata (CL Koch, 1841), Theraphosa blondi (Latreille, 1804), Nhandu coloratovillosus (Schmidt, 1998), Fufius minusculus Ortega, Nagahama, Motta & Bertani, 2013, and three new are species described here: Guyruita metallophila n. sp., Hapalopus serrapelada n. sp., and Idiops carajas n. sp. Five other “morphospecies” were represented by juveniles only: Ummidia sp. (Ctenizidae), Paratropis sp. (Paratropididae), Bolostromus sp. (Cyrtaucheniidae), Diplura sp. (Dipluridae), and Idiophtalma sp. (Barychelidae). The high number of juveniles suggests two alternatives: some species could be using the hypogean environment as reproductive shelter; the hypogean environment is used as a refuge by immatures. Two species appear to be troglophiles: G. metallophila and H. aymara.

New species of Southeast Asian Dwarf Tarantula from Thailand: Phlogiellus Pocock, 1897 (Theraphosidae, Selenocosmiinae)

Narin Chomphuphuang, Deborah Smith, Sitthipong Wongvilas, Varat Sivayyapram, Chaowalit Songsangchote, Natapot Warrit ,2017

A new record of the tarantula genus Phlogiellus Pocock, 1897 from Thailand is described. Distributional data, natural history, morphological characters, and illustrations of male and female are provided. The Thai specimens belong to a new species, Phlogiellus longipalpus sp. n. The diagnosis of the new species and related species are discussed.

The genus Holothele Karsch, 1879: the identity of the type species (Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae)

José Paulo Leite Guadanucci, Carlos Perafán, Dayana Valencia-Cuéllar ,2017

The genus Holothele Karsch, 1879 has a confusing taxonomic history, mainly due to a imprecise and outdated generic diagnosis, perpetuated since its original description. In this work, we propose a new diagnosis for the genus, redescribe the type species Holothele recta Karsch, 1879 and propose a few taxonomic changes. Holothele longipes is here considered as a senior synonym of Holothele recta Karsch, 1879, Stichoplastus sanguiniceps F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1898, Dryptopelmides rondoni Lucas & Bücherl, 1972, Dryptopelmides ludwigi Strand, 1907. We also provide updated geographic distribution records for Holothele longipes and propose the revalidation of Scopelobates Simon, 1903.

Reconciling morphological and molecular systematics in tarantulas (Araneae: Theraphosidae): revision of the Mexican endemic genus Bonnetina

David Ortiz, Oscar F. Francke ,2017

Systematics has been formally implemented for about 250 years. In the last decades it has suffered great intellectual change, with the embrace of phylogenetic theory and the availability of molecular information. Here we conduct a systematic revision of Bonnetina, a group of tarantulas endemic to Mexico. Species delimitation is mainly conducted from the integration of morphological and molecular information. The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) marker is used as molecular barcode, and two formal molecular delimitation methods are employed: Hard-Gap barcoding and Poisson Tree Process. In a few cases, we used geographic distribution modelling for predicting the potential distribution of species. We also make a deeper than usual integration of the molecular information in the taxonomy of the group, by providing combined morphological and molecular diagnoses of the species. From our data, we provide a new diagnosis of Bonnetina and recognize the existence of 17 solidly supported species in the genus, 10 of which are newly described. We provide a COI reference alignment to ease future molecular identifications of Bonnetina species. Our work highlights the importance of using several sources of evidence to the species delimitation problem, because any single view is prone to give biased results.

A new species of Sahydroaraneus (Theraphosidae) from Western Ghats of Kerala, India

Sunil K Jose ,2017

A new species Sahydroaraneus sebastiani sp.nov. is recorded from the Western Ghats of Kerala. It resembles S. collinus Pocock 1899 but can be separated from S. collinus Pocock 1899 in having spermathecal stalks with uniform diameter ending in a single lobe, while in S. collinus Pocock 1899 spermathecal stalks are wider at the bottom, tapering at upper end and posses a bud like single lobe.

Systematic revision of Brachypelma red-kneed tarantulas (Araneae: Theraphosidae), and the use of DNA barcodes to assist in the identification and conservation of CITES-listed species

Jorge Ivan Mendoza Marroquín, Oscar F. Francke ,2017

Mexican red-kneed tarantulas of the genus Brachypelma are regarded as some of the most desirable invertebrate pets, and although bred in captivity, they continue to be smuggled out of the wild in large numbers. Species are often difficult to identify based solely on morphology, therefore prompt and accurate identification is required for adequate protection. Thus,weexplored the applicability of using COI-basedDNAbarcoding as a complementary identification tool. Brachypelma smithi (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897) and Brachypelma hamorii Tesmongt, Cleton & Verdez, 1997 are redescribed, and their morphological differences defined. Brachypelma annitha is proposed as a new synonym of B. smithi. The current distribution of red-kneed tarantulas shows that the Balsas River basin may act as a geographical barrier. Morphological and molecular evidence are concordant and together provide robust hypotheses for delimitingMexican red-kneed tarantula species. DNA barcoding of these tarantulas is further shown to be useful for species-level identification and for potentially preventing black market trade in these spiders. As a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) listing does not protect habitat, or control wildlifemanagement or human interactionswith organisms, it is important to support environmental conservation activities to provide an alternative income for local communities and to avoid damage to wildlife populations.

Taxonomic revision of the genus Crassicrus Reichling & West, 1996 (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae), with the description of additional keels on the embolus

Daniela T. Candia-Ramirez, Oscar F. Francke ,2017

Since its original description, the theraphosid spider genus Crassicrus Reichling & West, 1996 has not been revised and no new species have been described. While reviewing material deposited in the Mexican National Collection of Arachnids (National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City) and the American Museum of Natural History (New York, USA), we encountered specimens corresponding to four new species of Crassicrus from Mexico. In this revision, we include a redescription of the genus and its type species, C. lamanai Reichling & West, 1996, and describe four new species: C. bidxigui, C. tochtli, C. cocona, and C. yumkimil. Species habitat data are provided, as well as identification keys for males and females. In addition, new keels on the male embolus were identified and are described. In the Theraphosinae, the presence of one retrolateral keel has been reported, but in Crassicrus, there are two or three retrolateral keels, and a new taxonomical nomenclature for these keels is proposed. The genus Crassicrus is recorded from Mexico for the first time, increasing the number of known theraphine genera in the country to 16.

Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera

Caroline Sayuri Fukushima, Rogério Bertani ,2017

The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyrapora gen. n., Caribena gen. n., and Antillena gen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818), Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n., A. minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920), Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, A. hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianae sp. n., A. lynnae sp. n., and A. caei sp. n.. Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected to accommodate former Avicularia species: Caribena gen. n., composed of Caribena laeta (C. L. Koch, 1842), comb. n. and Caribena versicolor (Walckenaer, 1837), comb. n.; Antillena gen. n., with a single species, Antillena rickwesti (Bertani & Huff, 2013), comb. n., both from the Caribbean; and Ybyrapora gen. n., composed of Ybyrapora sooretama (Bertani & Fukushima, 2009), comb. n., Ybyrapora gamba (Bertani & Fukushima, 2009), comb. n. and Ybyrapora diversipes (C. L. Koch, 1842), comb. n. from Brazilian rainforest. The subspecies Avicularia avicularia variegata F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 is elevated to species status, resulting in the combination Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n.. The following new synonymies are established: Avicularia velutina Simon 1889, Avicularia exilis Strand, 1907, Avicularia ancylochyra Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia cuminami Mello-Leitão, 1930, and Avicularia nigrotaeniata Mello-Leitão, 1940 are junior synonyms of A. avicularia; Avicularia bicegoi Mello-Leitão, 1923 is a junior synonym of A. variegata stat. n., and Avicularia urticans Schmidt, 1994 is a junior synonym of Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923. Species transferred to other genera: Avicularia affinis (Nicolet, 1849) is transferred to Euathlus Ausserer, 1875, making the new combination Euathlus affinis (Nicolet, 1849), comb. n.; Avicularia subvulpina Strand, 1906 is transferred to Grammostola Simon, 1892, making the new combination Grammostola subvulpina (Strand, 1906), comb. n.; Avicularia aymara (Chamberlin, 1916) is transferred to Thrixopelma Schmidt, 1994, making the new combination Thrixopelma aymara (Chamberlin, 1916), comb. n.; Avicularia leporina (C. L. Koch, 1841) and Avicularia plantaris (C. L. Koch, 1842) are transferred to Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, making the new combinations Iridopelma leporina (C. L. Koch, 1841), comb. n. and Iridopelma plantaris (C. L. Koch, 1842), comb. n.; the two last species are considered nomina dubia. The following species are considered nomina dubia: Avicularia hirsutissima (C. L. Koch, 1842) nomen dubium; Ischnocolus hirsutum Ausserer, 1875 nomen dubium; Ischnocolus gracilis Keyserling, 1891 nomen dubium; Avicularia arabica (Strand, 1908) nomen dubium; Araneus hirtipes (Fabricius, 1787) nomen dubium; Avicularia ochracea (Perty, 1833) nomen dubium; Avicularia walckenaerii (Perty, 1833) nomen dubium; Avicularia testacea (C. L. Koch, 1841) nomen dubium; Avicularia detrita (C. L. Koch, 1842) nomen dubium; Ischnocolus doleschalli Ausserer, 1871 nomen dubium; Avicularia metallica Ausserer, 1875 nomen dubium; Avicularia rapax (Ausserer, 1875) nomen dubium; Avicularia holmbergi Thorell, 1890 nomen dubium; Avicularia aurantiaca Bauer, 1996 nomen dubium; Avicularia azuraklaasi Tesmoingt, 1996 nomen dubium; Avicularia huriana Tesmoingt, 1996 nomen dubium; Avicularia ulrichea Tesmoingt, 1996 nomen dubium; Avicularia braunshauseni Tesmoingt, 1999 nomen dubium; Avicularia geroldi Tesmoingt, 1999 nomen dubium; Avicularia soratae Strand, 1907 nomen dubium; Avicularia fasciculata Strand, 1907 nomen dubium; Avicularia fasciculata clara Strand, 1907 nomen dubium; and Avicularia surinamensis Strand, 1907 nomen dubium. Avicularia vestiaria (De Geer, 1778) is considered nomen nudum. Keys are provided for identification of all aviculariine genera, as well as to Avicularia, Caribena gen. n., Ybyrapora gen. n. and Antillena gen. n. species. Maps with records and information on species habitat are also presented. Lectotypes are newly designed for A. avicularia, A. variegata stat. n., A. juruensis, C. laeta comb. n., E. affinis comb. n. and a neotype is established for C. versicolor comb. n.

Litter and ground dwelling spiders (Araneae: Arachnida) of reserve forests of Dooars, West Bengal

Dhruba Chandra Dhali, Sumana Saha, Dinendra Raychaudhuri ,2017

Litter, one of the forest habitats includes the layer of dead plant materials present on soil surface, comprising the surface litter (L-layer), the partially decomposing layer beneath it (F-layer) and the humus layer (H-layer). It plays a major role in the transfer of energy and nutrients in the forest ecosystem; litter fall data is often used to predict the productivity of ecosystem. The natural forest litter, surface and associated ground with its floral diversity and specialized micro niches support a variety of macro and micro arthropods including spiders through variations in moisture, cover materials, litter depth and structure. A strong correlation between species diversity of ground dwelling spiders and litter habitat is thought to exist because habitat affects spiders through prey availability, temperature fluctuation, moisture content and harborage. Ecological importance of spiders is undeniable as they are abundant predators of other forest litter arthropods. Globally people are laying emphasis on the studies of litter and ground dwelling spiders while India is yet to jump into. It is believed that the monograph is the first comprehensive study on the forest litter and ground dwelling spiders of the reserve forests of Dooars, West Bengal, India.

Re-description of Trichopelma cubanum (Theraphosidae: Ischnocolinae) and comments about the familial placement of Trichopelma

Duniesky Ríos Tamayo ,2017

A detailed re-description of the type specimen of Trichopelma cubanum (Simon, 1903) is presented. Comments and observations are made regarding morphological characters, such as the absence of teeth on the paired claws and the presence of small teeth on the anterior edge of the booklung opening. These characters, found in other species of Trichopelma Simon, 1888 (represented in the Neotropical region by 16 species), suggest that the recent transfer of the genus to Theraphosidae may be unjustified, and that Trichopelma may indeed be more closely related to the Barychelidae.

Description and molecular characterization of a new species of tarantula, Pamphobeteus verdolaga, from Colombia (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae)

Yeimy Cifuentes, Sebastian Estrada-Gomez, Leidy Johana Vargas-Muñoz, Carlos Perafán ,2016

A new species of Pamphobeteus Pocock, 1901 is described from the Colombian Andes, Medellín, Antioquia. The biochemistry and molecular characteristics of the venom of this new species (previously identified as Pamphobeteus aff. nigricolor) has been already described. A detailed taxonomic study, comparing this species with holotypes and additional material of Pamphobeteus species, allowed us to recognize it as new, and to describe it here as Pamphobeteus verdolaga sp. nov. The male of P. verdolaga sp. nov. is distinguished by the palpal bulb with broad embolus, poorly developed apical keel (A), prolateral inferior keel (PI) and prolateral accessory keel (PAc) present but poorly developed, and retrolateral keel (R) of similar length as A. Females are distinguished by the morphology of spermatheca with a wide base and very short oval seminal receptacles, which are curved toward the center. This is the thirteenth species described in Pamphobeteus and the sixth species reported from Colombia. The species description is complemented by a molecular characterization of a partial CO1 sequence.

A new genus of Theraphosid spider from Mexico, with a particular palpal bulb structure (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae)

Jorge Ivan Mendoza Marroquín, Arturo Locht, Radan Kaderka, Francisco Medina, Fernando Pérez-Miles ,2016

Magnacarina gen. nov. from Mexico is described. Hapalopus aldanus West, 2000 from Nayarit, is transferred to the new genus with an emended diagnosis creating the new combination Magnacarina aldana comb. nov. Three new species are described: Magnacarina moderata Locht, Mendoza & Medina sp. nov. from Nayarit and Sinaloa; Magnacarina primaverensis Mendoza & Locht sp. nov. and Magnacarina cancer Mendoza & Locht sp. nov., both from Jalisco. Magnacarina gen. nov. is characterized by an unusual bifid palpal bulb, and has a primary projection located in the central area of the palpal bulb and directed retrolaterally; this projection possesses the prolateral superior and retrolateral keels. Next to the primary projection is a secondary projection, which may be short or long, ending in the prolateral inferior and apical keel surrounding the sperm pore. This secondary projection may have prolateral accessory keels and is diagnosed by possessing a nodule of inwardly curled megaspines, located in the basal ventro-retrolateral region of metatarsi I in adult males. Additionally, male tibiae I possess three apophyses. Females of Magnacarina gen. nov. have a single reduced and strongly sclerotized spermatheca, with an apical lobe projecting ventrally, and with a uterus externus that is longer and wider than the spermatheca.

Description of the male of Avicularia rickwesti Bertani & Huff, 2013, a remarkable species from the Dominican Republic (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Aviculariinae)

Radan Kaderka ,2016

A male of Avicularia rickwesti Bertani & Huff, 2013 from Pedernales province, Dominican Republic in the Greater Antillean island of Hispaniola is, herein, described and figured. The males of Avicularia rickwesti differ from all other congeners by the presence of well-developed keels on the embolus of the palpal bulb. The species is rediagnosed.

Una nueva especie de Acanthoscurria (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae) sin órgano estridulador, del sur de Perú

Nelson Ferretti, José A. Ochoa, Juan C. Chaparro ,2016

Acanthoscurria sacsayhuaman sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae) is described based on a male from Cusco, Peru. The new species is characterized by the absence of stridulatory bristles on retrolateral face of palpal trochanter. Moreover, it can be distinguished by morphology of the male palpal bulb and tibial apophysis of the first pair of legs. The genus is recorded for the first time for Peru.

Revised Taxonomic Placement of the Species in the Central American Genera Davus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892, Metriopelma Becker, 1878, and Schizopelma F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897, with Comments on Species in Related Genera (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel ,2016

The genera Davus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892, Metriopelma Becker, 1878, and Schizopelma F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897 are redefined. The genus Acentropelma Pocock, 1901 is removed from synonymy with Stichoplastus Simon, 1903, and the genus Eurypelmella Strand, 1907b is removed from synonymy with Schizopelma F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897 gen. rest. The holotype specimens of Davus fasciatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892, Metriopelma zebratum Banks, 1909, Metriopelma drymusetes Valerio, 1982, Metriopelma breyeri Becker, 1878, Schizopelma bicarinatum F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897, and conspecifics of Cyclosternum pentaloris Simon, 1888 are redescribed. Hapalopus ruficeps Simon, 1891 is removed from synonymy with Cyclosternum pentaloris Simon, 1888 and, along with Cyclosternum fasciatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892 and Metriopelma zebratum Banks, 1909, are transferred to the genus Davus (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892) comb. nov. Davus santos sp. nov. is described. Davus ruficeps is regarded as senior synonym of Metriopelma zebratum syn. nov., Metriopelma drymusetes Valerio, 1982 is regarded as junior synonym of Davus fasciatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892 syn. nov. Davus mozinna Estrada-Alvarez, 2014 is regarded as junior synonym of D. pentaloris syn. nov. The specimen of Metriopelma breyeri Becker, 1878 from the Natural History Museum, London, is formally nominated as topotype because the holotype is missing (see Discussion). Metriopelma familiare (Simon, 1889) and Metriopelma ledezmae Vol, 2000 are tentatively transferred to the genus Cyclosternum Ausserer, 1871 comb. nov., while Metriopelma coloratus Valerio, 1982 and Metriopelma variegatus (Caporiacco, 1955) are transferred to the genus Hapalopus Ausserer, 1875 combs. nov. Metriopelma velox Pocock, 1903, Lasiodora trinitatis (Pocock, 1903), and L. trinitatis pauciaculeis (Strand, 1916) are transferred to the genus Pseudhapalopus Strand, 1907a combs. nov. Metriopelma spinulosum O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1899 is transferred back to the restored genus Acentropelma Pocock, 1901 comb. rest. along with Cyclosternum macropus Ausserer, 1875, Schizopelma sorkini Smith, 1995, and Lasiodora gutzkei Reichling, 1997, transferred from Lasiodora Koch, 1850 combs. nov. Hapalopus nigriventris (Mello-Leitão, 1939) is redescribed. Lasiodora tetricus (Simon 1889) is transferred from Lasiodora Koch, 1850 to the restored genus Miaschistopus Pocock, 1897 comb. rest. The genera Neischnocolus Petrunkevitch, 1925, with its single species Neischnocolus panamanus Petrunkevitch, 1925, and Barropelma Chamberlin (1940), with its single species Barropelma parvior Chamberlin and Ivie, 1936, are removed from the synonymy of Lasiodora and restored gen. rest.

Kankuamo, a new theraphosid genus from Colombia (Araneae, Mygalomorphae), with a new type of urticating setae and divergent male genitalia

Carlos Perafán, William Galvis, Miguel Gutiérrez, Fernando Pérez-Miles ,2016

A new monotypic Theraphosidae genus, Kankuamo Perafán, Galvis & Pérez-Miles, gen. n., is described from Colombia, with a new type of urticating setae. These setae differ from others principally by having a small distal oval patch of lanceolate reversed barbs. Males of Kankuamo gen. n. additionally differ by having a palpal bulb organ very divergent from all known species, with many conspicuous keels dispersed across the median tegulum to the tip, mostly with serrated edges. Females differ by having spermathecae with a single notched receptacle, with two granulated lobes and several irregular sclerotized longitudinal striations. The new urticating setae, type VII, is characterized, illustrated and its releasing mechanism is discussed. It is hypothesized that these setae are the first in Theraphosinae subfamily whose release mechanism is by direct contact. Kankuamo gen. n. is described and illustrated on the basis of the type species Kankuamo marquezi Perafán, Galvis & Gutiérrez, sp. n., and their remarkable characteristics, morphological affinities and cladistic relationship are analyzed.