Joerg Wunderlich, Patrick Müller
An emended classification and cladograms of high taxa of the Aeaneae
are provided. Ca. 48 families of spiders (Araneae) in Mid Cretaceous Burmese amber
are listed; the report of the families Atypidae, Idiopidae and Ochyroceratidae is doubtful.
The spiders of the Infraorder MYGALOMORPHA are treated, a provisional key to
its families is given. The 9 superfamilies of the diverse clade SYNSPERMIATA are
diagnosed, 20 families, 11 are known in Burmite, 5 are extinct. Synspermiata contains
the three subclades Caponiomorpha, Dysderomorpha and Pholcomorpha. Ca. three
quarters of haplogyne families in Burmite are members of the Synspermiata. I call the
Cretaceous the “age of Synspermiata and Palpimanoidea (= Archaeoidea)”. The colulate
and basically eight-eyed Synspermiata is actually not any more regarded as sister
group of the family Filistatidae but of the clade CRIBELLATAE in a new sense which
includes several diverse branches. Hence the name Basalhaplogynae WUNDERLICH
2019 is superfluous (name rejected). In my opinion the cribellum originated only once.
The taxon Microsegestriinae WUNDERLICH 2004 (under Segestriidae) in Lebanese
amber is now regarded as a questionable member of the superfamily Dysderoidea,
probably Oonopidae (quest. n. relat.). Segestrioidea is split off from the Dysderoidea
and contains three families. The family Ariadnidae WUNDERLICH 2004 (n. stat., elevated
from Ariadninae) is unknown in Burmite. Jordansegestria WUNDERLICH 2015 with its generotype J. detruneo in Jordanian amber is regarded as a synonym of Parvosegestria
WUNDERLICH 2015 of the new family Parvosegestriidae (n. syn. & n.
relat.), based on Parvosegestria WUNDERLICH 2015. The genus Denticulsegestria
WUNDERLICH 2015 is regarded as a synonym of Parvosegestria (n. syn.). The synonymy
of Myansegestria WUNDERLICH 2015 with Parvosegestria is not excluded (n.
quest. syn.). Magnosegestria tuber n. gen. n. sp. - a questionable member of the
Segestriidae - in Burmite is described. The holotype of Magnosegestria tuber is considered
to be the prey of a mygalomorph spider. Burmorsolidae WUNDERLICH 2015
(n. stat.) (from Burmorsolini) is transferred from the Plumorsolidae to the new superfamily
Burmorsoloidea (n. relat.). With some hesitation the extant family Trogloraptoridae
GRISWOLD et al. 2012 from Noth America is regarded as related to the Burmorsolidae
(quest. n. relat.). Loxodercinae WUNDERLICH 2017 has previously been transferred
from the family Eopsilodercidae WUNDERLICH 2008 to the Segestriidae:
Segestriinae but is now regarded as a synonym of the Burmorsolidae (n. syn.).
Burmorsolidae (under Burmorosolini) has erroneously been described by WUNDERLICH
(2015) as a member of the family Plumorsolidae WUNDERLICH 2008. Plumorsolidae
is known in Lebanese amber but is unknown in Burmese amber. This family is
now regarded as a plesion, probably of the branch Dipneumonomorpha: Oecobioidea?
(quest. n. relat.). Plumorsolidae in the previous sense of WUNDERLICH is not a monophyletic
taxon: Loxoderces WUNDERLICH 2017 and Pseudorsolus WUNDERLICH
2017 are regarded as junior synonyms of Burmorsolus WUNDERLICH 2015 (n. syn.)
of the family Burmorsolidae. – The relationships of the family Copaldictynidae
WUNDERLICH 2004 n. stat. of the new taxon Agelenomorpha in subrecent COPAL
FROM MADAGASCAR is revised and regarded as related to the extant families Titanoecidae
and Nicodamidae of the Nicodamoidea (n. relat.). - The following FURTHER NEW
TAXA are described (Burmorsoloidea and Segestrioidea: See above): Ctenizidae: Parvocteniza
parvula n. gen. n. sp.; Nemesiidae: Burmesia sordida n. gen. n. sp., Myannemesia
glaber n. gen. n. sp.; Theraphosidae: Protertheraphosinae n. subfam. based
on Protertheraphosa spinosa n. gen. n. sp.; Oonopidae: Burmorchestina circular n.
sp.; Burmorsolidae: Burmorsolus: globosus n. sp., longembolus n. sp. and longibulbus
n. sp.; Eopsilodercidae: Propterpsiloderces crassitibia n. sp., P. cymbioseta n. sp., P.
duplex n. sp.; Psilodercidae: Priscaleclercera furcate n. sp., P. hamo n. sp., P. liber
n. sp.; the family Aliendiguetidae n. fam., a plesion probably close to the Ochyroceratoidea
and Plectreuroidea, based on Aliendiguetia praecursor n. gen. n. sp.; Praepholcidae
n. stat., from Eopsilodercidae: Praepholcinae: Hamoderces opilionoides n.
gen. n. sp.; Tetrablemmidae: Bicornoculus granulans n. sp., Cymbioblemma fusca n.
sp., C. hamoembolus n. sp., Electroblemma bifurcate n. sp., E. caula n. sp., E. pinnae
n. sp., Eogamasomorpha rostratis n. sp., Unicornutiblemma n. gen., U. brevicornis n.
gen., U. gracilicornis n. sp., U. longicornis n. sp.; Hersiliidae: ?Burmesiola kachinensis
n. sp.; Archaeidae: ?Burmesarchea bilongapophyses n. sp.; Pholcochyroceridae:
Spinicreber vacuus n. sp.; Praearaneidae: Praearaneus araneoides n. sp.; Zarqaraneidae:
Palazarqaraneus hamulus n. gen. n. sp., Paurospina fastigata n. sp. ?Baalzebub
mesozoicum PENNEY 2014 from the Late Cretaceous OF FRANCE (under Theridiosomatidae)
is transferred to the family Zarqaraneidae (n. relat.) and regarded as the
member of an undescribed genus. – A note on Burmese Tilin amber is added.
Most important results of my studies (most are based on fossil spiders, too):
(1) The orb web originated twice: First in the Deinopoidea (remains of a Cretaceous
cribellate orb web exists) and - probably distinctly - later in the ecribellate Araneoidea
(no sure proof of an orb weaving araneoid taxon exists in the Cretaceous in constrast
to members of irregular web dwellers like Theridiidae and Zarqaraneidae); (2) the irregular (space) capture webs within the superfamily Araneoidea did not originate
from an orb web. They are not derived but are ancient web types and an extinct
araneoid species gave rise to the orb web;
(3) the cribellum originated only once. The Dipneumonomorpha retained basically a
DIVIDED cribellum - divided in the Family Filistatidae, divided, entire or lost in the remaining
Dipneumonomorpha; it is secondarily entire in the Hypochilomorpha (see
fig. A). (4) Losses (e. g.): Tarsal and metatarsal trichobothria were lost numerous times during
spider evolution (like the cribellum, book lungs, feathery hairs, leg bristles and the anterior
(5) the RTA-clade may be close to the Deinopoidea (see fig. A).
(6) the predecessor of the Synspermiata did PROBABLY not possess a cribellum – in
this clade the anterior median spinnerets were directly transformed to a colulus (see
figs. A, C).
(7) The Cretaceous - and apparently already the Jurassic - was the era of haplogyne
spiders, mainly of the Synspermiata (fig. C) and the - really haplogyne? – Palpimanoidea
(= Archaeoidea) at least in higher strata of the vegetation.
(8) Not a single sure proof of a Cretaceous member of the Retrolateral Tibial Apophysis
(RTA)-clade in Burmite exists. Members of this clade – e. g. Jumping spiders (Salticidae)
and Wolf spiders (Lycosidae) – are the most frequent and the most diverse spiders
today besides members of the superfamily Araneoidea.
A female of Cyriocosmus giganteus Kaderka 2016 is described and illustrated for
the first time, a new diagnosis of this species is proposed. Cyriocosmus paredesi sp.
nov. from Quebrada Putuiman (Marañon River) and Cyriocosmus foliatus sp. nov.
from Umaral near Iquitos, both from Loreto Department in Peru, are described,
diagnosed, illustrated and keyed. The male of Cyriocosmus sellatus (Simon 1889)
from Rio Blanco, the tributary of Rio Tahuyao, Loreto Department in Peru, is redescribed
and figured. The distribution area of this species is updated, and difficulties
in the identification of this species are discussed.
Duniesky Ríos Tamayo
Euathlus Ausserer, 1875 is a South American genus of spiders of the family Theraphosidae known from Chile and Argentina. Three new species from Argentina: Euathlus mauryi sp. n. (from San Juan province), Euathlus grismadoi sp. n. (from La Rioja province), and Euathlus pampa sp. n. (from Salta province) are described here. New records of the previous species Euathlus diamante and Euathlus tenebrarum are contributed. The distribution of these new species expands the geographical distribution of the genus along the Andean hills, with Salta province as the northernmost record of the genus. A key is provided for identification of Euathlus species as well as a map with all the records in Argentina.
Ranil P. Nanayakkara, G.A.S.M Ganehiarachchi, T.G. Tharaka Kusuminda, Nilantha Vishvanath, Mathisa K. Karunaratne, Peter J. Kirk
A new species of arboreal Theraphosidae spider from the genus Poecilotheria is described. This represents the second new Poecilotheria species described from the intermediate zone in Sri Lanka. Images are presented to distinguish the new species from Sri Lankan congeners.
Danniella Sherwood, Ray Gabriel
Specimens of the widely distributed ischnocoline species Holothele longipes (L. Koch, 1875) are formally reported from Guyana and Panama for the first time, based on examination of material from the collections of Natural History Museum, London, Oxford University Museum of Natural History and Museo de Invertebrados G. B. Fairchild, Universidad de Panama.
Marlus Queiroz Almeida, Lidianne Salvatierra, José Wellington de Morais
A new species of Ami Pérez-Miles, 2008 is described from the state of Amazonas in Brazil based on three males from Manaus. Ami valentinae sp. nov. is closely related to A. armihuariensis and A. caxiuana by the presence of a granular area on the embolus, but it differs from the first species by the presence of two retrolateral process on the male palpal tibia and differs by the latter by the morphology of the male palpal organ. A. valentinae sp. nov. is the first species of Ami reported for the Amazonas state and second species described for Brazil.
Jorge Ivan Mendoza Marroquín, Oscar F. Francke
The tarantula genus Brachypelma includes colourful species that are highly sought after in the commercial pet trade. They are all included in CITES appendix II. We present phylogenetic analyses using molecular and morphological characters to revise Brachypelma, in which we include all currently known species. Our results agree with a previous study that shows the non-monophyly of Brachypelma. Both phylogenies strongly favour the division of Brachypelma into two smaller genera. The first clade (Brachypelma s.s.) is formed by B.albiceps, B. auratum, B. baumgarteni, B. boehmei, B. emilia, B. hamorii, B. klaasi and B. smithi. The species included in the second clade are transferred to the new genus Tliltocatl and is formed by T. albopilosum comb. nov., T. epicureanum comb. nov., T. kahlenbergi comb. nov., T. sabulosum comb. nov., T. schroederi comb. nov., T. vagans comb. nov. and T. verdezi comb. nov. Both genera can be differentiated by their coloration and the shape of the genitalia. We transfer to Tliltocatl: T. alvarezi, T. andrewi and T. aureoceps, but should be considered as nomina dubia. In addition, we transfer B. fossorium to Stichoplastoris. We discuss the implications of these taxonomical changes for CITES and for the Mexican Laws for wildlife protection.
Brent E. Hendrixson
The tarantula spider genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 has received considerable attention in recent years but the
group’s diversity remains poorly understood in Mexico, particularly in the pine-oak woodlands of the Sierra Madre
Occidental and associated Madrean “Sky Islands”. A pair of tarantulas discovered from an unsampled region in the Sierra de Bacadéhuachi (the westernmost range of the Sierra Madre Occidental) in northeastern Sonora was found to be closely related to four species from the Madrean “Sky Islands” in Arizona and New Mexico. An integrative approach for delimiting species (incorporating data from molecular phylogenetics, morphology, distributions, and breeding periods) suggests that the specimens from Sierra de Bacadéhuachi belong to an undescribed species that is herein named Aphonopelma bacadehuachi sp. nov. This new species adds to our knowledge of an increasingly diverse assemblage of Aphonopelma from the Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Hotspot. Collaborations between Mexican and American researchers are needed to accelerate discovery and description of the group’s remaining diversity, particularly in light of the many threats facing the ecoregion including habitat degradation and climate change.
Sunil K Jose
The Oriental genus Neoheterophrictus is endemic to the Western Ghats of India and herein a new species collected from Chimmini wildlife sanctuary, Neoheterophrictus chimminiensis sp. nov., is described. This raises the number of Neoheterophrictus spp. from India to eight.
Vivian M. Montemor, Rick C. West, Alireza Zamani, Majid Moradmand, Volker von Wirth, Ingo Wendt, Siegfried Huber, José Paulo Leite Guadanucci
Spider material collected from Oman and Iran revealed a new species of the genus
Ischnocolus Ausserer, 1871, which is described as I. vanandelae sp. n. New records of
I. jickelii L. Koch, 1875 from Saudi Arabia, Yemen and United Arab Emirates show a
larger distribution of this species than previously known. The natural history of I.
vanandelae sp. n. and I. jickelii is described and the rather unusual colour polymorphism
of the latter is discussed. The genus now includes eight species, whose distribution
Wolfgang Nentwig, Theo Blick, Daniel Gloor, Peter Jäger, Christian Kropf
Strand considered each deviation of specimens from the original description in colouration, body size and shape, eye pattern or leg spination as sufficient to describe infraspecific taxa such as subspecies, varieties, forms and aberrations. Following this problematic approach, he erected 165 infraspecific names which may reflect phenetics rather than evolutionary history. The aim of this paper is to review the 102 still valid names according to current taxonomic standards. Here we declare 39 subspecies as new synonyms of the nominate form, we confirm 10 previously overlooked synonymies of subspecies with the nominate form, and 26 taxa are nomina dubia (some described from juveniles or type material destroyed afterwards). In 24 cases we recommend in-depth taxonomic studies on subspecies and species complexes (subspecies and species inquirenda), in 3 cases we concluded on stat. nov. In detail, we propose the following changes: Acanthoctenus impar pygmaeus Strand, 1909 = Nothroctenus marshi (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge,
1897) syn. nov.; Agelena jumbo kiwuensis Strand, 1913 = Mistaria kiwuensis (Strand, 1913) stat. nov.; Aranea börneri clavimacula Strand, 1907 = Araneus boerneri (Strand, 1907) syn. nov.; Aranea börneri obscurella Strand, 1907 = Araneus boerneri (Strand, 1907) syn. nov.;
Aranea dehaani octopunctigera Strand, 1911 = Parawixia dehaani octopunctigera (Strand, 1911) subspecies inquirenda; Aranea dehaani pygituberculata Strand, 1911 = Parawixia dehaani (Doleschall, 1859) syn. nov.; Aranea dehaani quadripunctigera Strand, 1911 = Parawixia dehaani (Doleschall, 1859) syn. nov.; Aranea rufipalpis fuscinotum Strand, 1908 = Neoscona fuscinotum (Strand, 1908) comb. nov.; Aranea rufipalpis nigrodecorata Strand, 1908 = nomen dubium (in Neoscona); Aranea rufipalpis punctipedella Strand, 1908 = nomen dubium (in Neoscona); Aranea rufipalpis strigatella Strand, 1908 = Neoscona strigatella (Strand, 1908) comb. nov.; Aranea theisi feisiana Strand, 1911 = Neoscona theisi syn. nov.; Aranea triangula mensamontella Strand, 1907 = Neoscona triangula (Keyserling, 1864) syn. nov.; Asagena tristis ruwenzorica Strand, 1913 = nomen dubium; Camaricus nigrotesselatus lineitarsus Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Clubiona abbajensis
karisimbiensis Strand, 1916 = Clubiona abbajensis Strand, 1906 syn. nov.; Clubiona abbajensis maxima Strand, 1906 = nomen dubium; Corinna sanguinea inquirenda Strand, 1906 = Corinna sanguinea Strand, 1906 syn. nov.; Ctenus peregrinus sapperi Strand, 1916 = Ctenus
peregrinus F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900 syn. nov.; Cyrtarachne tricolor aruana Strand, 1911 = Cyrtarachne tricolor (Doleschall, 1859) syn. nov.; Cyrtophora citricola abessinensis Strand, 1906 = Cyrtophora citricola (Forsskål, 1775) syn. nov.; Cyrtophora moluccensis albidinota Strand, 1911 = Cyrtophora moluccensis (Doleschall, 1857) syn. nov.; Cyrtophora moluccensis bukae Strand, 1911 = Cyrtophora moluccensis (Doleschall, 1857) syn. nov.; Cyrtophora moluccensis rubicundinota Strand, 1911 = Cyrtophora moluccensis (Doleschall, 1857) syn. nov.; Cyrtophora viridipes scalaris Strand, 1915 = Cyrtophora cylindroides (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Damastes coquereli affinis Strand, 1907 =
nomen dubium; Gasteracantha aruana antemaculata Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha theisi Guérin, 1838) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha aruana keyana Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha theisi Guérin, 1838 syn. nov.; Gasteracantha bradleyi trivittinota Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha bradleyi univittinota Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha lepida rueppelli Strand, 1916 = nomen dubium; Gasteracantha signifera bistrigella Strand, 1911, Gasteracantha signifera heterospina Strand, 1915, Gasteracantha signifera pustulinota Strand, 1911 = subspecies inquirenda; Gasteracantha strasseni anirica Strand,
1915 = Gasteracantha pentagona (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha taeniata bawensis Strand, 1915 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha taeniata jamurensis Strand, 1915 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.;
Gasteracantha taeniata maculella Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha taeniata obsoletopicta Strand, 1915 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha taeniata oinokensis Strand, 1915 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha taeniata sentanensis Strand, 1915 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha theisi quadrisignatella Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha theisi Guérin, 1838 syn. nov.; Gnaphosa lapponum inermis Strand, 1899 = Gnaphosa lapponum (L. Koch, 1866) syn. nov.; Heteropoda pedata magna Strand, 1909 = nomen dubium; Heteropoda submaculata torricelliana Strand, 1911 = nomen dubium; Heteropoda sumatrana javacola Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Heteropoda venatoria pseudoemarginata Strand, 1909 = nomen dubium; Heteroscodra crassipes latithorax Strand, 1920 = Heteroscodra crassipes Hirst, 1907 syn. nov.; Hysterocrates affinis angusticeps Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Isopeda inola carinatula Strand, 1913 = Isopedella inola (Strand, 1913) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata anirensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata bukaensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata maitlandensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata mathiasensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata salomonum Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata squallyensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata tomaensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Linyphia pusilla quadripunctata Strand, 1903 = Microlinyphia pusilla (Sundevall, 1830) syn. conf.; Lithyphantes paykulliana obsoleta Strand, 1908 = nomen dubium (in Steatoda); Lycosa fastosa viota Strand, 1914 = Pardosa
fastosa (Keyserling, 1877) syn. nov.; Lycosa palustris islandica Strand, 1906 = Pardosa palustris (Linnaeus, 1758) syn. nov.; Lycosa proxima antoni Strand, 1915 = Pardosa proxima antoni (Strand, 1915) nomen dubium; Lycosa proxima annulatoides Strand, 1915 = Pardosa
proxima annulatoides (Strand, 1915) subspecies inquirenda; Medmassa humilis reichardti Strand, 1916 = Xeropigo tridentiger (O. Pickard- Cambridge, 1869) syn. nov.; Myrmarachne maxillosa septemdentata Strand, 1907 = Toxeus septemdentatus (Strand, 1907) stat. nov. et
comb. nov.; Nephila maculata malagassa Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Olios lamarcki taprobanicus Strand, 1913 = Olios taprobanicus Strand, 19013 stat. nov.; Oxyopes embriki Roewer, 1951 = nomen dubium; Oxyopes javanus nicobaricus Strand, 1907 = Oxyopes javanus
Thorell, 1887 syn. nov.; Oxyopes variabilis dorsivittatus Strand, 1906 = nomen dubium; Oxyopes variabilis nigriventris Strand, 1906 = nomen dubium; Oxyopes variabilis Strand, 1906 = nomen dubium; Ozyptila trux devittata Strand, 1901 = nomen dubium; Panaretus chelata vittichelis Strand, 1911 = nomen dubium (in Heteropoda); Paraplectana thorntoni occidentalis Strand, 1916 = Paraplectana thorntoni (Blackwall, 1865) syn. nov.; Paraplectana walleri ashantensis Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Pediana regina isopedina Strand, 1913 = Pediana horni (Hogg, 1896) syn. conf.; Phlegra bresnieri meridionalis Strand, 1906 = Phlegra bresnieri (Lucas, 1846) syn. nov.; Phrynarachne rugosa
infernalis Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium ; Regillus cinerascens sumatrae Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Scytodes quattuordecemmaculatus clarior Strand, 1907 = Scytodes quattuordecemmaculata Strand, 1907 syn. nov.; Spilargis ignicolor bimaculata Strand, 1909 = Spilargis ignicolor Simon, 1902 syn. nov.; Synema imitator (Pavesi, 1883) = Synema
imitatrix (Pavesi, 1883) correction; Synema imitatrix meridionale Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Tarentula hispanica dufouri Strand, 1916 = Lycosa hispanica dufouri Simon, 1876 correction, subspecies inquirenda; Theridion inquinatum continentale Strand, 1907 = nomen
dubium; Thomisus albus meridionalis Strand, 1907 = Thomisus onustus Walckenaer, 1805 syn. nov.
Ranil P. Nanayakkara, Amila Prasanna Sumanapala, Peter J. Kirk
The mygalomorph spider family Theraphosidae is represented by 980 species in 144 genera
globally (World Spider Catalogue 2018). Within the family Theraphosidae sites the genus
Chilobrachys. The genus Chilobrachys is found in South and East Asia, with 27 described species
to date (World Spider Catalogue 2018). They are ground dwelling spiders, living in burrows
lined with silk and other debris (Nanayakkara, 2013, Nanayakkara 2014b). In Sri Lanka the
genus is represented by only one species, namely Nanayakkara 2014b), which also happens to be
the type species (species typica) for the genus.
Ray Gabriel, Danniella Sherwood
The chaotic taxonomy of the subfamily Ornithoctoninae
Pocock, 1895 is partially addressed, with a focus on redefining
the arboreal genera Lampropelma Simon, 1892, Omothymus
Thorell, 1891, and Phormingochilus Pocock, 1895. Previous
works placing heavy emphasis on unstable taxonomic characters
are addressed and stable taxonomic features presented for the
clear delineation of males of arboreal ornithoctonine genera.
The male of Phormingochilus everetti Pocock, 1895 is described
for the first time. A new species, Omothymus rafni sp. nov.
is described from historical material collected in Sumatra.
Lampropelma violaceopes Abraham, 1924 is transferred to
Omothymus based on comparative leg measurements and
geographical location comb. nov. Lampropelma nigerrimum
arboricola Schmidt & Barensteiner, 2015 is transferred to the
genus Phormingochilus with full species status acknowledged,
giving the new combination Phormingochilus arboricola
comb. nov. Omothymus thorelli Simon, 1901 is considered
a junior synonym of Omothymus schioedtei Thorell, 1891
syn. nov., based on similar morphology and geographical
locations. Phormingochilus carpenteri Smith & Jacobi, 2015
is transferred to the genus Lampropelma based on comparative
leg measurements and geographical location comb. nov.
Phormingochilus kirki Smith & Jacobi, 2015 is considered a
junior synonym of L. carpenteri syn. nov. Phormingochilus
fuchsi Strand, 1906 is transferred to the genus Omothymus based
on comparative leg measurement and geographic distribution
comb. nov. Phormingochilus tigrinus Pocock, 1895 is removed
from synonymy with P. everetti based on the lack of justification
for the synonymy comb. rest. Omothymus dromeus Chamberlin,
1917 is removed from Omothymus and returned to the restored
genus Melognathus comb. rest.
Aphonopelma braunshausenii Tesmoingt, 1996 is regarded as a nomen dubium due to the lack of a deposited holotype, an inadequate description which gives no stable taxonomic features to differentiate it from any other species and the absence of an exact type locality. The instability of some morphological characters which were given weight for species delineation in many earlier works is discussed and illustrated.
Stuart J. Longhorn , Ray Gabriel
The type material of several Central American tarantulas
(Theraphosidae; Theraphosinae) were re-examined within a
broader revision involving the defunct genus Eurypelma Koch,
1850 and the poorly defined Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901. Here,
we create the new monotypic genus Sandinista gen. nov. for
a revised taxon Sandinista lanceolatum (Simon, 1891) comb.
nov., which is a small tarantula from the Pacific lowland dry
forests of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. It was originally described
under Eurypelma and later transferred to Aphonopelma without
justification. Based on comparison of type specimens against
new material, we emphasise its unusual bulb anatomy to rediagnose
it as a new genus with suggested close affinity to
Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (sensu stricto), Sphaerobothria
Karsch, 1897, and Stichoplastoris Rudloff, 1997. We also
re-examined the type material of Brachypelma fossorium
Valerio, 1980, which is here treated as a junior synonym of S.
lanceolatum, syn. nov. We also discuss the Mexican/Central
American genus Crassicrus Reichling & West, 1999, into which
we transfer another former Eurypelma from the Yucatán. This
species was later called Aphonopelma stoicum (Chamberlin,
1925), which we revise as Crassicrus stoicum comb. nov. and
contrast against other described congeners. We also re-evaluate
two other specimens later determined as Aphonopelma stoicum
by Schmidt & Piepho (1997), including the alleged first female
for the species, and consider them as mis-identified congeners.
Finally, we provide some discussion on Citharacanthus
meermani Reichling & West, 2000 from Belize in the context
of Crassicrus, due to similar aspects of their male palpal bulb
morphology, highlighting potentially informative aspects.
Fernando Pérez-Miles, Ray Gabriel, Danniella Sherwood
The recent rediscovery and examination of the holotype
of Neischnocolus panamanus Petrunkevitch, 1925 and its
comparison with type material of the genera Barropelma
Chamberlin, 1940 and Ami Pérez-Miles, 2008 led us to
establish their generic synonymy. Ami species and the
monotypic Barropelma parvior (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936)
fit with the diagnostic characters of Neischnocolus, with the
presence of modified type I urticating setae and the singular
spermathecal morphology. B. parvior is considered a junior
synonym of N. panamanus syn. nov. based on genital organ
morphology and geographical location. Ami bladesi Pérez-
Miles, Gabriel & Gallon, 2008 is also considered a junior
synonym of Neischnocolus panamanus syn nov. based on
genital organ morphology and geographical location. As a
consequence, of the synonymies of the genera Barropelma and
Ami with Neischnocolus, seven new combinations are created:
N. amazonica comb. nov., N. armihuarensis comb. nov., N.
caxiuana comb. nov., N. obscurus comb. nov., N. pijaos comb.
nov., N. weinmanni comb. nov. and N. yupanquii comb. nov.
Danniella Sherwood, Ray Gabriel, Stuart J. Longhorn
Montenegro et al. (2018) reported the theraphosid spider genus Homoeomma Ausserer, 1871 from Chile and described a new species of this genus with distinctive red and black colouration, naming it Homoeomma chilensis Montenegro & Aguilera, 2018. Soon after, Sherwood et al. (2018) described Homoeomma bicolor also from Chile having the same colouration. In this work, we demonstrate these nominal species to be synonymous and H. chilensis is regarded as the valid senior synonym of H. bicolor following the Article 23 of the Code (Anonymous 1999).
This case represents an instance where two independent scientific teams described the same taxon, in different journals published within a very short period of time of each other, respectively dated October and November of the same year, causing two available binominal names to exist for a single species (Anonymous 2019). Here we resolve this situation through synonymy, discuss an additional morphological character not mentioned in the original description by Montenegro et al. (2018) and note further intraspecific variation that exists for H. chilensis. Potential homonymy in Chilean theraphosid nomenclature is also discussed.
Poecilotheria chaojii Mirza, Sanap & Bhosale, 2014 is proposed as a junior synonym of Poecilotheria tigrinawesseliSmith, 2006 n. syn., based on morphology and distribution. The variability of morphological features given by Mirza, Sanap & Bhosale (2014) is discussed.
John M. Midgley, Ian Engelbrecht
During 2015 and 2016 several baboon spider specimens (Araneae: Theraphosidae) were collected in central Angola during surveys undertaken for the Okavango Wilderness Project. These collections represent range and habitat extensions for Pterinochilus Pocock, 1897, Ceratogyrus Pocock, 1897 and Phoneyusa Karsch, 1884. The new species Ceratogyrus attonitifer sp. n. is described from female specimens and the distribution of genera mapped. Central and eastern Angola is severely under sampled for theraphosid spiders, with every species collected during the survey either being potentially new to science or representing a significant range extension for the genus.
Ray Gabriel, Danniella Sherwood
A new genus and species of the subfamily Selenocosmiinae Simon, 1892 are described from Sarawak, Borneo: Birupes simoroxigorum gen. et sp. nov. with discussion on the use of palpal bulb, spermathecae and stridulatory organ morphology in selenocosmiine systematics.
Dayana Valencia-Cuéllar, Carlos Perafán, Roberto J Guerrero, José Paulo Leite Guadanucci
The spider subfamily Schismatothelinae from Colombia is revised. One new species of Euthycaelus Simon 1889 and three new species of Schismatothele Karsch 1879 are named, as well as new geographical records provided. E. guane sp. nov. from Santander, S. hacaritama sp. nov. from Norte de Santander, S. olsoni sp. nov. from Norte de Santander and Táchira (Venezuela), and S. weinmanni sp. nov. from Cundinamarca are herein described, diagnosed and illustrated. Schismatothele is newly recorded from Colombia. Morphological aspects and diversity of the Ischnocolinae and Schismatothelinae from Colombia are discussed. An identification key to species of these subfamilies from Colombia is provided.
Maria Chatzaki, Marjan Komnenov
The family Theraphosidae is recorded from Greece for the first time with the description of a new species, Chaetopelma lymberakisi sp. n. Also, the male of Macrothele cretica Kulczyński, 1903 is re-described and the female of the same species is described for the first time.
Sergei L. Zonstein
The paper provides additional information on the taxonomy of the theraphosid
genus Ischnocolus Ausserer, 1871. A new combination is proposed: Ischnocolus
elongatus (Simon, 1873), n. comb. (ex Cyrtauchenius). The hitherto unknown
males of I. hancocki Smith, 1990 and I. jickelii (L. Koch, 1875) are depicted and
described for the first time. Illustrations of the male palpal organ showing its
structure in two remaining congeners, I. valentinus (Dufour, 1820) and I. ignoratus
Guadanucci & Wendt, 2014, are also provided. The following synonymy
is established: Mygale valentina Dufour, 1820 = Leptopelma cavicola Simon,
1889, n. syn. The taxonomic position of species, previously included in Leptopelma
Ausserer, 1871, is briefly discussed.
Danniella Sherwood, Ray Gabriel, Stuart J. Longhorn
A new species of theraphosid spider from
Chile is described: Homoeomma bicolor sp. nov.
Carlos Perafán, Dayana Valencia-Cuéllar
A new species of Proshapalopus Mello-Leit~ao, 1923, distributed in the Southwest
Colombia in the Choco Region, is described. A morphological cladistic analysis
based on the previous matrix of a Theraphosinae group confirmed the inclusion of
this species within Proshapalopus. The new species, Proshapalopus marimbai n.
sp., can be distinguished from other species of the genus mainly by the reduced
number of labial cuspules, around 40; in contrast the other species having over 100.
Males can be distinguished by the thickened femur III, presence of intermediate urticating
setae type I-III only, palpal bulb with a considerably long prolateral inferior
keel (from ventral median depression to embolus apex) and the accessory keel pronounced
distally. Females can be distinguished for lacking urticating setae type III
and the non-incrassated tibia IV. This discovery constitutes the fourth species
described for Proshapalopus and the first record for Colombia, expanding the geographical
distribution of the genus, until now known for Brazil only. Other aspects
of distribution and the phylogenetic relationship of the new species are also discussed
Rubén Montenegro V., Milenko A. Aguilera, María Eugenia Casanueva
Two new species of Homoeomma Ausserer, 1871 from south-central Chile are
described, diagnosed and illustrated based on males and females. Males of Homoeomma
chilensis spec. nov. and H. orellanai spec. nov. differ from other species of the
genus by the palpal bulb morphology. Females differ by the shape of spermathecae.
Specimens were captured in regions of O’Higgins, Maule and Biobío, Chile. These
are the first species of the genus recorded in the biogeographic province of Santiago,
west of the Andes. This is a novel finding, given that until now, known species
of Homoeomma are only present east of the Andes.
Based on molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses a new genus of Theraphosidae is described, Pseudoclamoris gen. n. Tapinauchenius gigas and Tapinauchenius elenae are transferred to Pseudoclamoris and a new species of Pseudoclamoris from the Amazon Region is described: P. burgessi sp. n. Two new species of Tapinauchenius from the Caribbean are described: T. rasti sp. n. and T. polybotes sp. n. Tapinauchenius subcaeruleus is considered a nomen dubium. Psalmopoeinae subfamily is diagnosed based on molecular and morphological phylogenies, and Pseudoclamoris gen. n. and Ephebopus Simon, 1892 are included. A taxonomic key for Psalmopoeinae genera Tapinauchenius, Pseudoclamoris, Psalmopoeus, and Ephebopus is provided.
Fabio de F. Gargiulo, Antonio Domingos Brescovit, Sylvia M. Lucas
Umbyquyra gen. nov., a new Theraphosinae genus with stridulatory bristles on the palpal trocanther of pedipalp trochanter and first leg, is proposed. The genus differs from the other genera with stridulatory bristles on the same segments, Acanthoscurria Ausserer, 1871, Cyrtopholis Simon, 1892, Longilyra Gabriel, 2014 and Nesipelma Schmidt & Kovarik, 1996, by having a palpal bulb with a very short and acuminate embolus and four short keels; separated tibial apophysis; and female spermathecae resembling those of Cyrtopholis, with two seminal receptacles with elongated ducts emerging from a common area. Cyrtopholis palmarum Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945 and C. schmidti Rudloff, 1996 from Brazil and Acanthoscurria acuminata Schmidt & Tesmoingt in Schmidt, 2005 from Bolivia are transferred to the new genus. The female of Umbyquyra palmarum (Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945) gen. et comb. nov. and the male of U. schmidti (Rudloff, 1996) gen. et comb. nov. are described for the first time. Cyrtopholis zorodes Mello-Leitão, 1923 is considered a junior synonym of Acanthoscurria gomesiana Mello-Leitão, 1923 and Cyrtopholis meridionalis (Keyserling, 1891) is considered a nomen dubium. Eight new species from Brazil are described: Umbyquyra paranaiba gen. et sp. nov., U. cuiaba gen. et sp. nov., U. araguaia gen. et sp. nov., U. sapezal gen. et sp. nov., U. belterra gen. et sp. nov., U. caxiuana gen. et sp. nov., U. tucurui gen. et sp. nov. and U. tapajos gen. et sp. nov. Data and maps on the geographic distribution are provided.
Nelson Ferretti, Patricio E. Cavallo, Juan C. Chaparro, Duniesky Ríos Tamayo, Tracie A. Seimon, Rick C. West
New specimens of the genus Hapalotremus (Theraphosinae) are revised based on the examination of types and additional material collected in Argentina, Bolivia and Peru. A new generic diagnosis is proposed. New information and illustrations are provided for known species and seven new species were recognized and are newly described and illustrated. Hence, Hapalotremus comprises 10 valid species, distributed along the Andes and Yungas in western South America. All species are keyed and mapped. New taxonomic features are included in the descriptions and the detail of embolus keels morphology and positions are described for the first time for the genus. Information on species habitat is included. The highest altitude record for a Theraphosidae spider, living at 4524 m above sea level, is reported.
Witold Lapinski, Ray Gabriel, Fernando Pérez-Miles
The female sex of Ami bladesi Pérez-Miles et al., 2008 is
described, based on three specimens from northeastern Costa
Rica and one specimen from the type locality in Panama. It is
the first record of this species and genus from Costa Rica. In
addition to the modified urticating hairs of type I, urticating
hairs of type III were found in both females and males from
Costa Rica and Panama. Notes on the distribution, ecology, and
behaviour of A. bladesi are included.