Antikuna, a new genus with seven new species from Peru (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae) and the highest altitude record for the family

Radan Kaderka, Nelson Ferretti, Martin Hüsser, Tim Lüddecke, Rick C. West ,2021

Antikuna, a new genus from Peruvian Andes, was proposed, diagnosed and described, to include seven new species: Antikuna cernickai sp. nov., A. cimrmani sp. nov., A. cyanofemur sp. nov., A. majkusi sp. nov., A. sapallanga sp. nov., A. urayrumi sp. nov. and A. valladaresi sp. nov. Antikuna gen. nov. is characterised by having the type III urticating setae concentrated in one dorsal patch, ventral side of maxillae with short spiniform setae in apical half, the male bulb carrying four keels, prolateral superior, prolateral inferior, apical and subapical keel terminating in a short tooth, and the female spermathecae consisting of two separate divergent seminal receptacles, carrying one or more ventral keels, and dorsally with distinct oval apical lobe, which is narrower than the receptacle neck. In the males of Antikuna gen. nov. the flexion of metatarsi I is between both branches of tibial apophyses and prolateral cymbial lobe is distinctly larger than retrolateral one. Antikuna gen. nov. inhabits altitudes above 3,800 m a.s.l. and A. valladaresi sp. nov. was found in the altitude of 4,689 m a.s.l. representing a new highest altitude record for the family Theraphosidae.

Catumiri Guadanucci, 2004: new diagnosis, first description of the female of C. petropolium Guadanucci, 2004, and new records of the genus from Brazil and Uruguay (Theraphosidae: Ischnocolinae)

Arthur Galleti-Lima, Rafael Prezzi Indicatti, José Paulo Leite Guadanucci ,2021

The ischnocoline genus Catumiri Guadanucci, 2004 comprises four species distributed in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. The type species Catumiri petropolium Guadanucci, 2004 is known only from the male. We here provide a new diagnosis for Catumiri, describe the female of C. petropolium, and report new records of this species from Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos, Reserva Biológica do Tinguá and Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also expand the distribution of Catumiri parvum (Keyserling, 1878) to Parque Nacional de Aparados da Serra, Praia Grande, Santa Catarina, Brazil, Alegrete, Rosário do Sul, Santana do Livramento, Pinheiro Machado, Bagé, and Jaguarão, all from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and Cerro de Los Cuervos, Lavalleja, Uruguay.

Stabilizing a chaotic taxonomy: redescription and redefinition of the genera Lasiodorides Schmidt & Bischoff, 1997 and Thrixopelma Schmidt, 1994 (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Danniella Sherwood, Ray Gabriel, Radan Kaderka, Sylvia Marlene Lucas, Antonio Domingos Brescovit ,2021

The genera Lasiodorides Schmidt & Bischoff, 1997 and Thrixopelma Schmidt, 1994 are preliminarily revised, and their taxonomy stabilized. Both sexes of Lasiodorides polycuspulatus Schmidt & Bischoff, 1997, and the male of Lasiodorides striatus (Schmidt & Antonelli, 1996) are redescribed, and the genus Lasiodorides is rediagnosed. Lasiodorides rolinae Tesmoingt, 1999 is proposed as a junior synonym of L. polycuspulatus syn. nov., based on colouration and spermathecal morphology. Lasiodorides remotus Schmidt, 2007 is proposed as a junior synonym of L. polycuspulatus syn. nov., based on spermathecal morphology. Thrixopelma aymara (Chamberlin, 1916) and Thrixopelma lagunas Schmidt & Rudloff, 2010 are redescribed. Thrixopelma ockerti Schmidt, 1994 is illustrated from the syntype series and redescribed based on a non-type female from Iquitos, Peru, held in the collections of the Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Thrixopelma longicolli (Schmidt, 2003) comb. nov. is newly transferred from Lasiodorides to Thrixopelma based on palpal bulb morphology, and the holotype male is redescribed. The inherent problems of the paratype exuviae of this taxon are also discussed. Thrixopelma peruvianum (Schmidt, 2007) comb. nov. is newly transferred from Euathlus Ausserer, 1875 following examination of the holotype female exuvia and a conspecific non-type female exuvia. Thrixopelma cyaneolum Schmidt, Friebolin & Friebolin, 2005 is discussed ad illustrated from the syntype female exuviae. Thrixopelma pruriens Schmidt, 1998 is discussed and illustrated from the holotype female exuvia, and the problematic non-type material discussed. Finally, we argue that future designation of exuviae as type specimens of novel theraphosid spiders should be considered an unacceptable practice in arachnology.

A new species of Cymbiapophysa Gabriel & Sherwood, 2020 from Colombia and a transfer from Proshapalopus Mello-Leitão, 1923 (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Danniella Sherwood, Ray Gabriel, Antonio Domingos Brescovit, Sylvia Marlene Lucas ,2021

A new species of Cymbiapophysa Gabriel & Sherwood, 2020, C. magna sp. nov. is described from Colombia. Proshapalopus marimbai Perafán & Valencia-Cuéllar, 2018 is transferred to Cymbiapophysa from Proshapalopus Mello-Leitão, 1923, based on male palpal bulb and tibial apophysis morphology, female spermathecal morphology, comparative labial cuspule counts in both sexes, and biogeography, creating the new combination Cymbiapophysa marimbai comb. nov. Aspects of some structures of the male palpal bulb are also discussed.

Two new species of Eupalaestrus Pocock, 1901 (Araneae: Theraphosidae) from Southern Brazil and Northeastern Argentina

Leandro Malta Borges, Andressa Paladini, Rogério Bertani ,2021

After a morphological analysis of several tarantula specimens of the genus Eupalaestrus, including recently collected specimens from previously unrecorded localities, we herein describe two new species. They differ from congeners by the presence of a large area with spiniform setae between the coxae IV. They differ from each other in general size and in the thickening of the tibia and metatarsus IV. Eupalaestrus crassimetatarsis sp. nov. is distributed in the Brazilian States of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, and in Misiones Province in Argentina. Eupalaestrus roccoi sp. nov. is distributed in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. These natural grasslands are under threat from rapidly encroaching arable and livestock farming.

Twenty-three new spider species (Arachnida: Araneae) from Asia

Yejie Lin, Yuri M. Marusik, Caixia Gao, Hao Xu, Xiaoqing Zhang, Ziyi Wang, Wenhui Zhu, Shuqiang Li ,2021

A new genus, Sinophaena Lin & Li, gen. nov., of the spider family Anyphaenidae Bertkau, 1878 is reported, with S. xiweni Lin & Li, sp. nov. (♀) from Sichuan, China as the type species. Sinophaena bivalva (Zhang & Song, 2004) comb. nov. is transferred from Anyphaena Sundevall, 1833. Further new species reported in the current paper include: Anyphaena grovyle Lin & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀, Hainan), A. sceptile Lin & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀, Hainan), A. shenzhen Lin & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀, Guangdong), A. tibet Lin & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀, Tibet), A. treecko Lin & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀, Hainan), Cybaeus fushun Lin & Li, sp. nov. (♀, Liaoning), C. huadian Lin & Li, sp. nov. (♀, Jilin), Eresus lishizheni Lin, Marusik & Li, sp. nov. (♂, Xinjiang), Alistra pikachu Lin & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀, Guangdong), Sinopesa gollum Lin & Li, sp. nov. (♂, Guangdong), Pimoa gagna Zhang & Li, sp. nov. (♀, India), P. nainital Zhang & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀, India), P. shoja Zhang & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀, India), Selenops crewsae Lin & Li, sp. nov. (♀, Sichuan), Sinopoda helii Wang & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀, Sichuan), Phlogiellus jiaxiangi Lin & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀, Guangxi), Episinus bonjovi Lin & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀, Yunnan), E. jiangweni Lin & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀, Yunnan), E. tongyani Lin & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀, Yunnan), Meotipa luoqiae Lin & Li, sp. nov. (♂, Yunnan), M. menglun Lin & Li, sp. nov. (♂, Yunnan), and M. zhengguoi Lin & Li, sp. nov. (♂, Yunnan). The female of Belisana yuexiu Yao & Li, 2020 is reported for the first time. All types are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IZCAS) in Beijing, China.

Yanomamius n. gen., a new genus of tarantula from Brazilian and Venezuelan Amazon (Araneae, Theraphosidae), with description of three new species

Rogério Bertani, Marlus Queiroz Almeida ,2021

The new genus Yanomamius n. gen. from Brazilian and Venezuelan Amazon is described, with three new species from Brazil: Y. franciscoi n. sp. (type species), Y. raonii n. sp., and Y. neblina n. sp. The enigmatic Venezuelan species described as Holothele waikoshiemi Bertani & Araújo, 2006 and presently included in Guyruita Guadanucci et al. (2007) is transferred to the new genus, making the new combination Y. waikoshiemi (Bertani & Araújo, 2006) n. comb. Yanomamius n. gen. is closely related with the schismatotheline genera Schismatothele Karsch, 1879 and Euthycaelus Simon, 1889 sharing as probable synapomorphies a group of short spines on the retrolateral distal tibia of male palp and the shape of bulb. They differ by the position of the spines in a compact group instead of in rows and by a tapering embolus. Females differ from Schismatothele and Euthycaelus by the spermathecae weakly sclerotized. A series of recent phylogenies based on molecular data suggested a close relationship between schimatothelines and psalmopoeines. The male tibia I of Yanomamius n. gen. species have a series of ridges or a single protuberance behind the tibial apophyses that resemble those of psalmopoeines and strengthen the idea of close relationship of the two subfamilies.

A new species of the spider genus Phlogiellus (Araneae, Theraphosidae) from Hainan, China

Yejie Lin, Shuqiang Li, Haifeng Chen ,2021

The genus Phlogiellus Pocock, 1897 of the spider family Theraphosidae Thorell, 1869 includes 25 species from Southeast Asia, of which three have been recorded in China (Li 2020): P. bogadeki Nunn, West & von Wirth, 2016 and P. xinping (Zhu & Zhang, 2008) from Hong Kong and P. watasei (Kishida, 1920) from Taiwan. Here, we describe a new Phlogiellus species from Hainan, China: P. quanyui sp. nov. All specimens were preserved in 75% ethanol. Epigynes were cleared in trypsin enzyme solution to dissolve non- chitinous tissues. Specimens were examined under a LEICA M205C stereomicroscope. Photomicroscope images were taken with an Olympus C7070 zoom digital camera (7.1 megapixels). Photos were stacked with Helicon Focus 6.7.1 and processed in Adobe Photoshop CC 2018. The terminology used in the text and figures follows Zhu & Zhang 2008. All measurements are in millimeters. Eye sizes are measured as the maximum diameter from either the dorsal or frontal view. Leg measurements are given as follows: total length (femur, patella+tibia, metatarsus, tarsus). Abbreviations: ALE, ante- rior lateral eyes; AME, anterior median eyes; MOA, median ocular area; PLE, posterior lateral eyes; PME, posterior me- dian eyes. The type material is deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing (IZCAS).

The revised taxonomic placement of the genus Acentropelma Pocock, 1901 and restoration of the genus Pseudoschizopelma Smith, 1995 (Aranei: Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel, Danniella Sherwood, Stuart J. Longhorn ,2020

The genus Acentropelma Pocock, 1901 is redefined and the type species, A. spinulosum F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897 is redescribed. Pseudo- schizopelma Smith, 1995 is restored to house Acentropelma macropus (Ausserer, 1875) creating the restored combination Pseudoschizopelma macropus Acentropelma sorkini Smith, 1995 syn.n. is considered a junior synonym of P. macropus based on indistinguishable palpal bulb, tibial apophysis and sper- mathecal morphology. The paratype female of former A. sorkini, originally designated and described by Smith [1995] is found to be an immature Brachypelma Si- mon, 1891 – possibly Brachypelma kahlenbergi Rud- loff, 2008. Additional morphological features for A. gutzkei are included to complement the original de- scription by Reichling [1997], and its placement dis- cussed.

Neischnocolus iquitos, a new species from Peru (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Radan Kaderka ,2020

Neischnocolus iquitos sp. nov. from Loreto region, Peru, is described, diagnosed and figured. Males of N. iquitos sp. nov. differ from all known congeners in the presence of two retrolateral processes on palpal tibia, in combination with the presence of a retrolateral keel on embolus and the absence of granulation or microspikes on embolus or tegulum. Females of N. iquitos sp. nov. differ from all known Neischnocolus females in the morphology of the genitalia consisting of a lower sclerotized part with two short, separate seminal receptacles, and an upper part, which is transparent and notched.

Revision and cladistic analysis of Psalistops Simon, 1889, Trichopelma Simon, 1888 and Cyrtogrammomma Pocock, 1895 (Araneae: Theraphosidae) based on a cladistic analysis of relationships of Theraphosidae, Barychelidae and Paratropididae

Andre Mori, Rogério Bertani ,2020

The genera Psalistops Simon, 1889, Trichopelma, Simon, 1888 and Cyrtogrammomma Pocock, 1895 are revised and included in cladistics analyses including almost all species of these genera. In order to test previous morphological hypotheses on the relationships of Barychelidae, Paratropididae and Theraphosidae and because of the controversial taxonomic position of Psalistops and Trichopelma, a set of terminal taxa representing all subfamilies of Paratropididae (Paratropidinae, Glabropelmatinae), Barychelidae (Barychelinae, Sasoninae, Trichopelmatinae) and most theraphosid subfamilies were included, as well as a diplurid, a nemesiid, and a pycnothelid, the later used to root the cladogram. The matrix with 66 terminal taxa, 2 continuous and 93 discrete characters was analysed with TNT 1.5. We found that Trichopelmatinae is not a monophyletic group, and Psalistops is transferred to Theraphosidae, as well as the barychelid genus Cyrtogrammomma and the paratropidid genus Melloina Brignoli. Cyrtogrammomma was retrieved as the sister group of Trichopelma, and Melloina as the sister group of Holothele Karsch. Psalistops was retrieved as the sister group of Reichlingia Rudloff, and the clade with these two genera is the most basal in Theraphosidae. Barychelidae was found to be monophyletic and the sister group of Theraphosidae. Paratropididae was retrieved as the sister group of Barychelidae + Theraphosidae. The relationship and possible synapomorphies of the three families are herein discussed. This is the first time since Raven (1985) that representatives of all barychelid (Barychelinae, Sasoninae, Trichopelmatinae), paratropidid (Paratropidinae, Glabropelmatinae) and most theraphosid subfamilies have been included in a morphological cladistic analysis. Psalistops comprises two species, P. melanopygius Simon, 1889 (type species) and P. colombianus sp. nov. Psalistops montigena Simon, 1889, P. tigrinus Simon, 1889 and P. zonatus Simon, 1889 are synonymized with P. melanopygius Simon, 1889. Psalistops fulvus Bryant, 1948, P. hispaniolensis Wunderlich, 1988 (fossil), P. maculosus Bryant, 1948, P. venadensis Valerio, 1986 and P. steini (Simon, 1889) are transferred to Trichopelma. Psalistops gasci Maréchal, 1996 is transferred to Hapalopus Ausserer (Theraphosidae); P. opifex (Simon, 1889) and P. solitarius (Simon, 1889) are transferred to Schismatothele Karsch, 1879 (Theraphosidae). Schismatothele solitarius (Simon, 1889) n. comb. is synonymized with Schismatothele lineata Karsch, 1879, n. syn. Psalistops nigrifemuratus Mello-Leitão, 1939 is probably a nemesiid or pycnothelid, and herein considered as nomen dubium in Pycnothelidae. Trichopelma comprises 22 species: Trichopelma nitidum Simon, 1888 (type species), T. coenobita (Simon, 1889), T. steini (Simon, 1889), T. affine (Simon, 1892), T. cubanum (Simon, 1903), T. maculatum (Banks, 1906), T. zebra (Petrunkevitch, 1925), T. banksia Özdikmen & Demir, 2012, T. insulanum (Petrunkevitch, 1926), T. fulvus (Bryant, 1948) n. comb., T. laselva Valerio, 1986, T. venadensis (Valerio, 1986) n. comb., T. huffi sp. nov., T. gabrieli sp. nov., T. tostoi sp. nov., T. goloboffi sp. nov., T. juventud sp. nov., T. laurae sp. nov., T.bimini sp. nov., T. loui sp. nov., T. platnicki sp. nov., and T. hispaniolensis Wunderlich, 1988 n. comb. (fossil). Trichopelma maculosus (Bryant, 1948) n. comb. is synonymized with P. fulvus Bryant, 1948; T. corozalis (Petrunkevitch, 1929) is synonymized with T. insulanum (Petrunkevitch, 1926). Trichopelma astutum Simon, 1889 is transferred to Euthycaelus Simon, 1889, and T. maddeni Esposito & Agnarsson, 2014 to Holothele Karsch, 1879 (Theraphosidae). Trichopelma flavicomum Simon, 1891 is transferred to Neodiplothele (Barychelidae, Sasoninae). The species T. illetabile Simon, 1888, T. spinosum (Franganillo, 1926), T. scopulatum (Fischel, 1927) and T. eucubanum Özdikmen & Demir, 2012 are considered as nomina dubia. Cyrtogrammomma comprises two species: C. monticola Pocock, 1895 (type species) and C. raveni sp. nov.

Two new species of the Southeast Asian Dwarf tarantula genus Phlogiellus Pocock, 1887 (Theraphosidae, Selenocosmiinae) and a discussion on the taxonomic problem of the genus

Varat Sivayyapram, Chawakorn Kunsete, Chaowalit Songsangchote, Chawatat Thanoosing, Prapun Traiyasut, Natapot Warrit ,2020

Phlogiellus is one of the least studied theraphosid genera; there is only one recent revision on the genus. However, the “revision” only provided several taxonomic problems in the genus by giving unclear diagnostic characters of the genus and its species, using third party information in their descriptions and many of their examined specimens of are inaccessible. Here, we discuss the taxonomic problems of the genus, and provide a new genus description and diagnostic characters of Phlogiellus by combining information from previous studies with our examinations. Variation within species of previously diagnostic characters renders them of little value. In addition, two new Phlogiellus species from Myanmar and the Philippines are described and diagnosed here.

Bistriopelma fabianae, a new species of tarantula (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae) in a Queñua forest from southern Peru

Oscar Magdiel Quispe-Colca, Radan Kaderka ,2020

A new species of Bistriopelma Kaderka 2015, Bistriopelma fabianae sp. nov., from the Arequipa region in southern Peru is described, diagnosed, and illustrated. Specimens were found in a Queñua forest (Polylepis rugulosa Bitter) spread out on the slopes of Pichu Pichu volcano in the buffer zone of Salinas and Aguada Blanca National Reserve. Biological and ecological data of B. fabianae sp. nov. are provided as well as notes on B. kiwicha and B. peyoi, two new species recently described from Apurimac and Cusco regions.

Revised taxonomic placement of some species in Acanthoscurria Ausserer, 1871 and Eupalaestrus Pocock, 1901 (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel ,2020

The taxonomic placement of 11 species belonging to the genus Acanthoscurria Ausserer, 1871 and one species from the genus Eupalaestrus Pocock, 1901 are re-examined. Acanthoscurria convexa (C. L. Koch, 1842) is regarded as nomen dubium because there is no holotype specimen, the original description is poor, and there are no type location data. Acanthoscurria cordubensis Thorell, 1894 is redescribed and regarded as the senior synonym of Acanthoscurria suina Pocock, 1903 syn. nov., Acanthoscurria borealis Schmidt & Peters, 2005 syn. nov., and Acanthoscurria bollei Schmidt, 2005 syn. nov., based on similar geography, and morphology of the spermathecae, male bulb, and leg I and palpal tibial apophyses. Acanthoscurria proxima (Mello-Leitão, 1923) is regarded as nomen dubium because identification cannot be reliably determined between the two species found in the area. Acanthoscurria maga Simon, 1892 is regarded as the senior synonym of Acanthoscurria antillensis Pocock, 1903 syn. nov., based on similar morphology of the male bulb, and leg I and palpal tibial apophyses, and is redescribed along with the female. Acanthoscurria minor Ausserer, 1871 is regarded as nomen dubium because the type specimen is lost, along with a poor description and illustration. Acanthoscurria musculosa Simon, 1892 is also redescribed and regarded as the senior synonym of Acanthoscurria sternalis Pocock, 1903 syn. nov., and Acanthoscurria hirsutissimasterni Schmidt, 2007 syn. nov., based on similar geography, and morphology of the spermathecae, male bulb, and leg I and palpal tibial apophyses. The distribution of Acanthoscurria simoensi Vol, 2000 is extended into Guyana. Eupalaestrus guyanus (Simon, 1892) is regarded as a junior synonym of Eupalaestrus campestratus (Simon, 1891) syn. nov., based on morphology of the bulb, leg I and palpal tibial apophyses.

Primeros registros de Ischnocolus valentinus (Dufour, 1820) (Araneae: Theraphosidae) en la provincia de Córdoba (Andalucía, España)

Rafael Tamajón Gómez, Cristian Pertegal Pérez, Ginés Rodríguez Castilla ,2020

Ischnocolus valentinus (Dufour, 1820) (Araneae: Theraphosidae) is reported for the first time from Cordoba province (Andalusia, Spain), with two populations, one in the north (La Sierrezuela, Posadas) and the other one in the south (Cortijo de Tíscar, Valley of Genil River, Puente Genil).

New combination and redescription of Bumba humile, description of four new species and new records from Brazil (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Sylvia Marlene Lucas, Victor Passanha, Antonio Domingos Brescovit ,2020

The taxonomic history of Bumba Pérez-Miles, Bonaldo & Miglio, 2014 is mainly based on the inclusion of the new species. Bumba have been characterized by the type IV urticating setae present, retrolateral process on male palpal tibia, palpal bulb resting in a ventral distal excavation of palpal tibia, metatarsus I passes between the two branches of tibial apophysis when flexed, presence of spiniform setae on prolateral and retrolateral sides of maxillae and coxae I-IV. In this paper we include the row of teeth (denticulate row) in the median region of the inferior prolateral keel in all male palps. This structure range from a residual tooth to a ridge of up to five teeth. Both, the denticulate row and the retrolateral process on male palpal tibia in males could be considered as putative synapomorphies for Bumba. Here, Homoeomma humile Vellard, 1924 is transferred to Bumba and redescribed, while the female is described for the first time. Bumba cabocla (Pérez-Miles, 2000) is synonymyzed with B. horrida (Schmidt, 1994). Bumba pulcherrimaklaasi (Schmidt, 1991) is transferred to Cyclosternum Ausserer, 1871. Four new species are described and illustrated: Bumba tapajos sp. nov. from state of Pará, Bumba cuiaba sp. nov. and Bumba rondonia sp. nov., both from states of Rondônia and Mato Grosso, respectively, and Bumba mineiros sp. nov. from Paraguay and the Brazilian states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul. Diagnosis of B. horrida and B. lennoni are extended and figures of this species are presented.

Description of the male of the Critically Endangered tarantula Typhochlaena curumim Bertani, 2012 (Araneae, Theraphosidae), with comments on tarantula trade and conservation

Caroline Sayuri Fukushima, Pedro Cardoso, Rogério Bertani ,2020

The genus Typhochlaena C.L. Koch, 1850 consists of five small size arboreal tarantula species with remarkable colored abdominal patterns and a very restricted geographic range in Brazil. Here, we describe the male of Typhochlaena curumim Bertani, 2012, which was collected in an area of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. The new record extends the northern limit of the geographic range for both the genus and species. As Typhochlaena spp. are now especially popular and requested in the pet market, and because T. curumim is classified as Critically Endangered, we discuss the impacts of the international trade and other challenges on conservation of the genus.

Taxonomy of the genus Cyrtopholis Simon, 1892 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae): Cuban species described by Pelegrín Franganillo Balboa

Willian Fabiano-da-Silva, José Paulo Leite Guadanucci, Giraldo Alayo´n Garcia, Sylvia Marlene Lucas, Márcio Bernardino DaSilva ,2020

Cyrtopholis Simon 1892 is a spider genus from the Caribbean islands characterized by the presence of stridulatory setae on trochanter of palps and legs I. Franganillo Balboa described eight species of Cyrtopholis Simon 1892 from Cuba between 1926–1936. The type-material is deposited in the Instituto de Ecología y Sistematica do Ministerio de Ciencias, Tecnologia e Meio Ambiente, La Habana, Cuba. Four species are redescribed here: Cyrtopholis plumosa Franganillo, 1931, Cyrtopholis major Franganillo, 1926, Cyrtopholis unispina Franganillo, 1926 and Cyrtopholis gibbosa Franganillo, 1936. Cyrtopholis ischnoculoformis Franganillo, 1926 is based on a juvenile specimen without stridulatory setae, and it is therefore considered here as species inquirenda. The type-material of two other species were not located: Cyrtopholis anacanta Franganillo, 1935 and Cyrtopholis obsoleta (Franganillo, 1935), and are considered to be lost. These two species are here considered as species inquirenda, since the original descriptions do not permit identification. Cyrtopholis respina Franganillo 1935 is considered a nomen dubium, due to the lack of a formal description and a doubtful citation.

Two new endemic species of Bistriopelma (Araneae: Theraphosidae) from Peru, including a new remarkable horned tarantula

Micaela Nicoletta, Juan C. Chaparro, Luis Mamani, José A. Ochoa, Rick C. West, Nelson Ferretti ,2020

The spider genus Bistriopelma Kaderka, 2015 is endemic to Peru and includes three species known to date: Bistriopelma lamasi Kaderka, 2015, B. matuskai Kaderka, 2015 and B. titicaca Kaderka, 2017. The present contribution diagnoses, describes and illustrates two new species of Bistriopelma from Peru: B. peyoi sp. nov. and B. kiwicha sp. nov., both based on male and female. The male of B. peyoi sp. nov. is provided with a remarkable thoracic horn, and the species is the first horned tarantula for this genus. An updated distribution map for all known species is presented.

Revised taxonomic placement of some Mesoamerican Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, with description of three new species (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel, Danniella Sherwood ,2020

Three new species of the genus Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895 are described from Central America: P. copanensis sp. nov. from Honduras, P. sandersoni sp. nov. from Belize, and P. petenensis sp. nov. from Guatemala. The taxonomic placement of other species within the Reduncus Group is addressed: P. intermedius Chamberlin, 1940 is redescribed and its type locality discussed, P. reduncus (Karsch, 1880) is redescribed from a lectotype and paralectotype designated herein, P. maya Witt, 1996 is consid- ered a species inquirenda based on the type series being absent from its stated repository, and additional morphological data for P. victori Mendoza, 2014 is detailed to complement the original description. Furthermore, a morphometric methodology for evaluation of female spermathecae is presented and its use in species delineation discussed.

Revised taxonomic placement of Pseudhapalopus Strand, 1907, with notes on some related taxa (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel, Danniella Sherwood ,2020

The taxonomic placement of species within the genus Pseudhapalopus Strand, 1907 is addressed and revised in a modern context alongside other similar taxa. The genotype Pseudhapalopus aculeatus Strand, 1907 is proposed as a species inquirenda. Cymbiapophysa gen. nov. is established to house Cymbiapophysa velox (Pocock, 1903) comb. nov. and Cymbiapophysa yimana sp. nov., based on palpal bulb, tibial apophyses, palpal tibial, and spermathecal morphology. Spinosatibiapalpus gen. nov. is established to house Spinosatibiapalpus spinulopalpus Schmidt & Weinmann, 1997 comb. nov., Spinosatibiapalpus tansleyi sp. nov. and Spinosatibiapalpus trinitatis comb. nov. based on palpal bulb, tibial apophyses, palpal tibial, and spermathecal morphology. Pseudhapalopus trinitatis pauciaculeis (Strand, 1916) is proposed as a junior synonym of Spinosatibiapalpus trinitatis syn. nov. based on indistinguishable palpal bulb, tibial apophysis, and palpal tibial morphology. Bumba pulcherrimaklaasi (Schmidt, 1991) is proposed as a nomen dubium due to the condition of the holotype and an inadequate original description. The monotypic species Miaschistopus tetricus (Simon, 1889) is redescribed with an emended generic diagnosis. New aspects of palpal bulb morphology are considered with introduction of novel terminology.

How to deal with destroyed type material? The case of Embrik Strand (Arachnida: Araneae)

Wolfgang Nentwig, Theo Blick, Daniel Gloor, Peter Jäger, Christian Kropf ,2020

When the museums of Lübeck, Stuttgart, Tübingen and partly of Wiesbaden were destroyed during World War II between 1942 and 1945, also all or parts of their type material were destroyed, among them types from spider species described by Embrik Strand between 1906 and 1917. He did not illustrate type material from 181 species and one subspecies and described them only in an insufficient manner. These species were never recollected during more than 110 years and no additional taxonomically relevant information was published in the arachnological literature. It is impossible to recognize them, so we declare these 181 species here as nomina dubia. Four of these species belong to monotypic genera, two of them to a ditypic genus described by Strand in the context of the mentioned species descriptions. Consequently, without including valid species, the five genera Carteroniella Strand, 1907, Eurypelmella Strand, 1907, Theumella Strand, 1906, Thianella Strand, 1907 and Tmeticides Strand, 1907 are here also declared as nomina dubia. Palystes modificus minor Strand, 1906 is a junior synonym of P. superciliosus L. Koch, 1875 syn. nov.

Taxonomy of the genus Ischnocolus in the Middle East, with description of a new species from Oman and Iran (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Vivian M. Montemor, Rick C. West, Alireza Zamani, Majid Moradmand, Volker von Wirth, Ingo Wendt, Siegfried Huber, José Paulo Leite Guadanucci ,2020

Spider material collected from Oman and Iran revealed a new species of the genus Ischnocolus Ausserer, 1871, which is described as I. vanandelae sp. n. New records of I. jickelii L. Koch, 1875 from Saudi Arabia, Yemen and United Arab Emirates show a larger distribution of this species than previously known. The natural history of I. vanandelae sp. n. and I. jickelii is described and the rather unusual colour polymorphism of the latter is discussed. The genus now includes eight species, whose distribution is mapped.

New and already described fossil spiders (Araneae) of 20 families in mid and late Cretaceous Burmese Ambers, with notes on spider phylogeny, evolution and classification

Joerg Wunderlich, Patrick Müller ,2020

An emended classification and cladograms of high taxa of the Aeaneae are provided. Ca. 48 families of spiders (Araneae) in Mid Cretaceous Burmese amber are listed; the report of the families Atypidae, Idiopidae and Ochyroceratidae is doubtful. The spiders of the Infraorder MYGALOMORPHA are treated, a provisional key to its families is given. The 9 superfamilies of the diverse clade SYNSPERMIATA are diagnosed, 20 families, 11 are known in Burmite, 5 are extinct. Synspermiata contains the three subclades Caponiomorpha, Dysderomorpha and Pholcomorpha. Ca. three quarters of haplogyne families in Burmite are members of the Synspermiata. I call the Cretaceous the “age of Synspermiata and Palpimanoidea (= Archaeoidea)”. The colulate and basically eight-eyed Synspermiata is actually not any more regarded as sister group of the family Filistatidae but of the clade CRIBELLATAE in a new sense which includes several diverse branches. Hence the name Basalhaplogynae WUNDERLICH 2019 is superfluous (name rejected). In my opinion the cribellum originated only once. The taxon Microsegestriinae WUNDERLICH 2004 (under Segestriidae) in Lebanese amber is now regarded as a questionable member of the superfamily Dysderoidea, probably Oonopidae (quest. n. relat.). Segestrioidea is split off from the Dysderoidea and contains three families. The family Ariadnidae WUNDERLICH 2004 (n. stat., elevated from Ariadninae) is unknown in Burmite. Jordansegestria WUNDERLICH 2015 with its generotype J. detruneo in Jordanian amber is regarded as a synonym of Parvosegestria WUNDERLICH 2015 of the new family Parvosegestriidae (n. syn. & n. relat.), based on Parvosegestria WUNDERLICH 2015. The genus Denticulsegestria WUNDERLICH 2015 is regarded as a synonym of Parvosegestria (n. syn.). The synonymy of Myansegestria WUNDERLICH 2015 with Parvosegestria is not excluded (n. quest. syn.). Magnosegestria tuber n. gen. n. sp. - a questionable member of the Segestriidae - in Burmite is described. The holotype of Magnosegestria tuber is considered to be the prey of a mygalomorph spider. Burmorsolidae WUNDERLICH 2015 (n. stat.) (from Burmorsolini) is transferred from the Plumorsolidae to the new superfamily Burmorsoloidea (n. relat.). With some hesitation the extant family Trogloraptoridae GRISWOLD et al. 2012 from Noth America is regarded as related to the Burmorsolidae (quest. n. relat.). Loxodercinae WUNDERLICH 2017 has previously been transferred from the family Eopsilodercidae WUNDERLICH 2008 to the Segestriidae: Segestriinae but is now regarded as a synonym of the Burmorsolidae (n. syn.). Burmorsolidae (under Burmorosolini) has erroneously been described by WUNDERLICH (2015) as a member of the family Plumorsolidae WUNDERLICH 2008. Plumorsolidae is known in Lebanese amber but is unknown in Burmese amber. This family is now regarded as a plesion, probably of the branch Dipneumonomorpha: Oecobioidea? (quest. n. relat.). Plumorsolidae in the previous sense of WUNDERLICH is not a monophyletic taxon: Loxoderces WUNDERLICH 2017 and Pseudorsolus WUNDERLICH 2017 are regarded as junior synonyms of Burmorsolus WUNDERLICH 2015 (n. syn.) of the family Burmorsolidae. – The relationships of the family Copaldictynidae WUNDERLICH 2004 n. stat. of the new taxon Agelenomorpha in subrecent COPAL FROM MADAGASCAR is revised and regarded as related to the extant families Titanoecidae and Nicodamidae of the Nicodamoidea (n. relat.). - The following FURTHER NEW TAXA are described (Burmorsoloidea and Segestrioidea: See above): Ctenizidae: Parvocteniza parvula n. gen. n. sp.; Nemesiidae: Burmesia sordida n. gen. n. sp., Myannemesia glaber n. gen. n. sp.; Theraphosidae: Protertheraphosinae n. subfam. based on Protertheraphosa spinosa n. gen. n. sp.; Oonopidae: Burmorchestina circular n. sp.; Burmorsolidae: Burmorsolus: globosus n. sp., longembolus n. sp. and longibulbus n. sp.; Eopsilodercidae: Propterpsiloderces crassitibia n. sp., P. cymbioseta n. sp., P. duplex n. sp.; Psilodercidae: Priscaleclercera furcate n. sp., P. hamo n. sp., P. liber n. sp.; the family Aliendiguetidae n. fam., a plesion probably close to the Ochyroceratoidea and Plectreuroidea, based on Aliendiguetia praecursor n. gen. n. sp.; Praepholcidae n. stat., from Eopsilodercidae: Praepholcinae: Hamoderces opilionoides n. gen. n. sp.; Tetrablemmidae: Bicornoculus granulans n. sp., Cymbioblemma fusca n. sp., C. hamoembolus n. sp., Electroblemma bifurcate n. sp., E. caula n. sp., E. pinnae n. sp., Eogamasomorpha rostratis n. sp., Unicornutiblemma n. gen., U. brevicornis n. gen., U. gracilicornis n. sp., U. longicornis n. sp.; Hersiliidae: ?Burmesiola kachinensis n. sp.; Archaeidae: ?Burmesarchea bilongapophyses n. sp.; Pholcochyroceridae: Spinicreber vacuus n. sp.; Praearaneidae: Praearaneus araneoides n. sp.; Zarqaraneidae: Palazarqaraneus hamulus n. gen. n. sp., Paurospina fastigata n. sp. ?Baalzebub mesozoicum PENNEY 2014 from the Late Cretaceous OF FRANCE (under Theridiosomatidae) is transferred to the family Zarqaraneidae (n. relat.) and regarded as the member of an undescribed genus. – A note on Burmese Tilin amber is added. Most important results of my studies (most are based on fossil spiders, too): (1) The orb web originated twice: First in the Deinopoidea (remains of a Cretaceous cribellate orb web exists) and - probably distinctly - later in the ecribellate Araneoidea (no sure proof of an orb weaving araneoid taxon exists in the Cretaceous in constrast to members of irregular web dwellers like Theridiidae and Zarqaraneidae); (2) the irregular (space) capture webs within the superfamily Araneoidea did not originate from an orb web. They are not derived but are ancient web types and an extinct araneoid species gave rise to the orb web; (3) the cribellum originated only once. The Dipneumonomorpha retained basically a DIVIDED cribellum - divided in the Family Filistatidae, divided, entire or lost in the remaining Dipneumonomorpha; it is secondarily entire in the Hypochilomorpha (see fig. A). (4) Losses (e. g.): Tarsal and metatarsal trichobothria were lost numerous times during spider evolution (like the cribellum, book lungs, feathery hairs, leg bristles and the anterior median eyes). (5) the RTA-clade may be close to the Deinopoidea (see fig. A). (6) the predecessor of the Synspermiata did PROBABLY not possess a cribellum – in this clade the anterior median spinnerets were directly transformed to a colulus (see figs. A, C). (7) The Cretaceous - and apparently already the Jurassic - was the era of haplogyne spiders, mainly of the Synspermiata (fig. C) and the - really haplogyne? – Palpimanoidea (= Archaeoidea) at least in higher strata of the vegetation. (8) Not a single sure proof of a Cretaceous member of the Retrolateral Tibial Apophysis (RTA)-clade in Burmite exists. Members of this clade – e. g. Jumping spiders (Salticidae) and Wolf spiders (Lycosidae) – are the most frequent and the most diverse spiders today besides members of the superfamily Araneoidea.

The genus Cyriocosmus Simon 1903 and two new species from Peru (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Radan Kaderka ,2019

A female of Cyriocosmus giganteus Kaderka 2016 is described and illustrated for the first time, a new diagnosis of this species is proposed. Cyriocosmus paredesi sp. nov. from Quebrada Putuiman (Marañon River) and Cyriocosmus foliatus sp. nov. from Umaral near Iquitos, both from Loreto Department in Peru, are described, diagnosed, illustrated and keyed. The male of Cyriocosmus sellatus (Simon 1889) from Rio Blanco, the tributary of Rio Tahuyao, Loreto Department in Peru, is redescribed and figured. The distribution area of this species is updated, and difficulties in the identification of this species are discussed.

A new species of Tiger spider in the genus Poecilotheria Pocock, 1899 (Araneae: Theraphosidae) from Belihuloya, Sri Lanka

Ranil P. Nanayakkara, G.A.S.M Ganehiarachchi, T.G. Tharaka Kusuminda, Nilantha Vishvanath, Mathisa K. Karunaratne, Peter J. Kirk ,2019

A new species of arboreal Theraphosidae spider from the genus Poecilotheria is described. This represents the second new Poecilotheria species described from the intermediate zone in Sri Lanka. Images are presented to distinguish the new species from Sri Lankan congeners.

Three new species of Euathlus Ausserer, 1875 (Araneae, Theraphosidae) from Argentina

Duniesky Ríos Tamayo ,2019

Euathlus Ausserer, 1875 is a South American genus of spiders of the family Theraphosidae known from Chile and Argentina. Three new species from Argentina: Euathlus mauryi sp. n. (from San Juan province), Euathlus grismadoi sp. n. (from La Rioja province), and Euathlus pampa sp. n. (from Salta province) are described here. New records of the previous species Euathlus diamante and Euathlus tenebrarum are contributed. The distribution of these new species expands the geographical distribution of the genus along the Andean hills, with Salta province as the northernmost record of the genus. A key is provided for identification of Euathlus species as well as a map with all the records in Argentina.