Two new species of the Southeast Asian Dwarf tarantula genus Phlogiellus Pocock, 1887 (Theraphosidae, Selenocosmiinae) and a discussion on the taxonomic problem of the genus

Varat Sivayyapram, Chawakorn Kunsete, Chaowalit Songsangchote, Chawatat Thanoosing, Prapun Traiyasut, Natapot Warrit ,2020

Phlogiellus is one of the least studied theraphosid genera; there is only one recent revision on the genus. However, the “revision” only provided several taxonomic problems in the genus by giving unclear diagnostic characters of the genus and its species, using third party information in their descriptions and many of their examined specimens of are inaccessible. Here, we discuss the taxonomic problems of the genus, and provide a new genus description and diagnostic characters of Phlogiellus by combining information from previous studies with our examinations. Variation within species of previously diagnostic characters renders them of little value. In addition, two new Phlogiellus species from Myanmar and the Philippines are described and diagnosed here.

Bistriopelma fabianae, a new species of tarantula (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae) in a Queñua forest from southern Peru

Oscar Magdiel Quispe-Colca, Radan Kaderka ,2020

A new species of Bistriopelma Kaderka 2015, Bistriopelma fabianae sp. nov., from the Arequipa region in southern Peru is described, diagnosed, and illustrated. Specimens were found in a Queñua forest (Polylepis rugulosa Bitter) spread out on the slopes of Pichu Pichu volcano in the buffer zone of Salinas and Aguada Blanca National Reserve. Biological and ecological data of B. fabianae sp. nov. are provided as well as notes on B. kiwicha and B. peyoi, two new species recently described from Apurimac and Cusco regions.

Revised taxonomic placement of some species in Acanthoscurria Ausserer, 1871 and Eupalaestrus Pocock, 1901 (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel ,2020

The taxonomic placement of 11 species belonging to the genus Acanthoscurria Ausserer, 1871 and one species from the genus Eupalaestrus Pocock, 1901 are re-examined. Acanthoscurria convexa (C. L. Koch, 1842) is regarded as nomen dubium because there is no holotype specimen, the original description is poor, and there are no type location data. Acanthoscurria cordubensis Thorell, 1894 is redescribed and regarded as the senior synonym of Acanthoscurria suina Pocock, 1903 syn. nov., Acanthoscurria borealis Schmidt & Peters, 2005 syn. nov., and Acanthoscurria bollei Schmidt, 2005 syn. nov., based on similar geography, and morphology of the spermathecae, male bulb, and leg I and palpal tibial apophyses. Acanthoscurria proxima (Mello-Leitão, 1923) is regarded as nomen dubium because identification cannot be reliably determined between the two species found in the area. Acanthoscurria maga Simon, 1892 is regarded as the senior synonym of Acanthoscurria antillensis Pocock, 1903 syn. nov., based on similar morphology of the male bulb, and leg I and palpal tibial apophyses, and is redescribed along with the female. Acanthoscurria minor Ausserer, 1871 is regarded as nomen dubium because the type specimen is lost, along with a poor description and illustration. Acanthoscurria musculosa Simon, 1892 is also redescribed and regarded as the senior synonym of Acanthoscurria sternalis Pocock, 1903 syn. nov., and Acanthoscurria hirsutissimasterni Schmidt, 2007 syn. nov., based on similar geography, and morphology of the spermathecae, male bulb, and leg I and palpal tibial apophyses. The distribution of Acanthoscurria simoensi Vol, 2000 is extended into Guyana. Eupalaestrus guyanus (Simon, 1892) is regarded as a junior synonym of Eupalaestrus campestratus (Simon, 1891) syn. nov., based on morphology of the bulb, leg I and palpal tibial apophyses.

Primeros registros de Ischnocolus valentinus (Dufour, 1820) (Araneae: Theraphosidae) en la provincia de Córdoba (Andalucía, España)

Rafael Tamajón Gómez, Cristian Pertegal Pérez, Ginés Rodríguez Castilla ,2020

Ischnocolus valentinus (Dufour, 1820) (Araneae: Theraphosidae) is reported for the first time from Cordoba province (Andalusia, Spain), with two populations, one in the north (La Sierrezuela, Posadas) and the other one in the south (Cortijo de Tíscar, Valley of Genil River, Puente Genil).

New combination and redescription of Bumba humile, description of four new species and new records from Brazil (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Sylvia Marlene Lucas, Victor Passanha, Antonio Domingos Brescovit ,2020

The taxonomic history of Bumba Pérez-Miles, Bonaldo & Miglio, 2014 is mainly based on the inclusion of the new species. Bumba have been characterized by the type IV urticating setae present, retrolateral process on male palpal tibia, palpal bulb resting in a ventral distal excavation of palpal tibia, metatarsus I passes between the two branches of tibial apophysis when flexed, presence of spiniform setae on prolateral and retrolateral sides of maxillae and coxae I-IV. In this paper we include the row of teeth (denticulate row) in the median region of the inferior prolateral keel in all male palps. This structure range from a residual tooth to a ridge of up to five teeth. Both, the denticulate row and the retrolateral process on male palpal tibia in males could be considered as putative synapomorphies for Bumba. Here, Homoeomma humile Vellard, 1924 is transferred to Bumba and redescribed, while the female is described for the first time. Bumba cabocla (Pérez-Miles, 2000) is synonymyzed with B. horrida (Schmidt, 1994). Bumba pulcherrimaklaasi (Schmidt, 1991) is transferred to Cyclosternum Ausserer, 1871. Four new species are described and illustrated: Bumba tapajos sp. nov. from state of Pará, Bumba cuiaba sp. nov. and Bumba rondonia sp. nov., both from states of Rondônia and Mato Grosso, respectively, and Bumba mineiros sp. nov. from Paraguay and the Brazilian states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul. Diagnosis of B. horrida and B. lennoni are extended and figures of this species are presented.

Description of the male of the Critically Endangered tarantula Typhochlaena curumim Bertani, 2012 (Araneae, Theraphosidae), with comments on tarantula trade and conservation

Caroline Sayuri Fukushima, Pedro Cardoso, Rogério Bertani ,2020

The genus Typhochlaena C.L. Koch, 1850 consists of five small size arboreal tarantula species with remarkable colored abdominal patterns and a very restricted geographic range in Brazil. Here, we describe the male of Typhochlaena curumim Bertani, 2012, which was collected in an area of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. The new record extends the northern limit of the geographic range for both the genus and species. As Typhochlaena spp. are now especially popular and requested in the pet market, and because T. curumim is classified as Critically Endangered, we discuss the impacts of the international trade and other challenges on conservation of the genus.

Taxonomy of the genus Cyrtopholis Simon, 1892 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae): Cuban species described by Pelegrín Franganillo Balboa

Willian Fabiano-da-Silva, José Paulo Leite Guadanucci, Giraldo Alayo´n Garcia, Sylvia Marlene Lucas, Márcio Bernardino DaSilva ,2020

Cyrtopholis Simon 1892 is a spider genus from the Caribbean islands characterized by the presence of stridulatory setae on trochanter of palps and legs I. Franganillo Balboa described eight species of Cyrtopholis Simon 1892 from Cuba between 1926–1936. The type-material is deposited in the Instituto de Ecología y Sistematica do Ministerio de Ciencias, Tecnologia e Meio Ambiente, La Habana, Cuba. Four species are redescribed here: Cyrtopholis plumosa Franganillo, 1931, Cyrtopholis major Franganillo, 1926, Cyrtopholis unispina Franganillo, 1926 and Cyrtopholis gibbosa Franganillo, 1936. Cyrtopholis ischnoculoformis Franganillo, 1926 is based on a juvenile specimen without stridulatory setae, and it is therefore considered here as species inquirenda. The type-material of two other species were not located: Cyrtopholis anacanta Franganillo, 1935 and Cyrtopholis obsoleta (Franganillo, 1935), and are considered to be lost. These two species are here considered as species inquirenda, since the original descriptions do not permit identification. Cyrtopholis respina Franganillo 1935 is considered a nomen dubium, due to the lack of a formal description and a doubtful citation.

Two new endemic species of Bistriopelma (Araneae: Theraphosidae) from Peru, including a new remarkable horned tarantula

Micaela Nicoletta, Juan C. Chaparro, Luis Mamani, José A. Ochoa, Rick C. West, Nelson Ferretti ,2020

The spider genus Bistriopelma Kaderka, 2015 is endemic to Peru and includes three species known to date: Bistriopelma lamasi Kaderka, 2015, B. matuskai Kaderka, 2015 and B. titicaca Kaderka, 2017. The present contribution diagnoses, describes and illustrates two new species of Bistriopelma from Peru: B. peyoi sp. nov. and B. kiwicha sp. nov., both based on male and female. The male of B. peyoi sp. nov. is provided with a remarkable thoracic horn, and the species is the first horned tarantula for this genus. An updated distribution map for all known species is presented.

Revised taxonomic placement of some Mesoamerican Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, with description of three new species (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel, Danniella Sherwood ,2020

Three new species of the genus Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895 are described from Central America: P. copanensis sp. nov. from Honduras, P. sandersoni sp. nov. from Belize, and P. petenensis sp. nov. from Guatemala. The taxonomic placement of other species within the Reduncus Group is addressed: P. intermedius Chamberlin, 1940 is redescribed and its type locality discussed, P. reduncus (Karsch, 1880) is redescribed from a lectotype and paralectotype designated herein, P. maya Witt, 1996 is consid- ered a species inquirenda based on the type series being absent from its stated repository, and additional morphological data for P. victori Mendoza, 2014 is detailed to complement the original description. Furthermore, a morphometric methodology for evaluation of female spermathecae is presented and its use in species delineation discussed.

Revised taxonomic placement of Pseudhapalopus Strand, 1907, with notes on some related taxa (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel, Danniella Sherwood ,2020

The taxonomic placement of species within the genus Pseudhapalopus Strand, 1907 is addressed and revised in a modern context alongside other similar taxa. The genotype Pseudhapalopus aculeatus Strand, 1907 is proposed as a species inquirenda. Cymbiapophysa gen. nov. is established to house Cymbiapophysa velox (Pocock, 1903) comb. nov. and Cymbiapophysa yimana sp. nov., based on palpal bulb, tibial apophyses, palpal tibial, and spermathecal morphology. Spinosatibiapalpus gen. nov. is established to house Spinosatibiapalpus spinulopalpus Schmidt & Weinmann, 1997 comb. nov., Spinosatibiapalpus tansleyi sp. nov. and Spinosatibiapalpus trinitatis comb. nov. based on palpal bulb, tibial apophyses, palpal tibial, and spermathecal morphology. Pseudhapalopus trinitatis pauciaculeis (Strand, 1916) is proposed as a junior synonym of Spinosatibiapalpus trinitatis syn. nov. based on indistinguishable palpal bulb, tibial apophysis, and palpal tibial morphology. Bumba pulcherrimaklaasi (Schmidt, 1991) is proposed as a nomen dubium due to the condition of the holotype and an inadequate original description. The monotypic species Miaschistopus tetricus (Simon, 1889) is redescribed with an emended generic diagnosis. New aspects of palpal bulb morphology are considered with introduction of novel terminology.

How to deal with destroyed type material? The case of Embrik Strand (Arachnida: Araneae)

Wolfgang Nentwig, Theo Blick, Daniel Gloor, Peter Jäger, Christian Kropf ,2020

When the museums of Lübeck, Stuttgart, Tübingen and partly of Wiesbaden were destroyed during World War II between 1942 and 1945, also all or parts of their type material were destroyed, among them types from spider species described by Embrik Strand between 1906 and 1917. He did not illustrate type material from 181 species and one subspecies and described them only in an insufficient manner. These species were never recollected during more than 110 years and no additional taxonomically relevant information was published in the arachnological literature. It is impossible to recognize them, so we declare these 181 species here as nomina dubia. Four of these species belong to monotypic genera, two of them to a ditypic genus described by Strand in the context of the mentioned species descriptions. Consequently, without including valid species, the five genera Carteroniella Strand, 1907, Eurypelmella Strand, 1907, Theumella Strand, 1906, Thianella Strand, 1907 and Tmeticides Strand, 1907 are here also declared as nomina dubia. Palystes modificus minor Strand, 1906 is a junior synonym of P. superciliosus L. Koch, 1875 syn. nov.

Taxonomy of the genus Ischnocolus in the Middle East, with description of a new species from Oman and Iran (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Vivian M. Montemor, Rick C. West, Alireza Zamani, Majid Moradmand, Volker von Wirth, Ingo Wendt, Siegfried Huber, José Paulo Leite Guadanucci ,2020

Spider material collected from Oman and Iran revealed a new species of the genus Ischnocolus Ausserer, 1871, which is described as I. vanandelae sp. n. New records of I. jickelii L. Koch, 1875 from Saudi Arabia, Yemen and United Arab Emirates show a larger distribution of this species than previously known. The natural history of I. vanandelae sp. n. and I. jickelii is described and the rather unusual colour polymorphism of the latter is discussed. The genus now includes eight species, whose distribution is mapped.

New and already described fossil spiders (Araneae) of 20 families in mid and late Cretaceous Burmese Ambers, with notes on spider phylogeny, evolution and classification

Joerg Wunderlich, Patrick Müller ,2020

An emended classification and cladograms of high taxa of the Aeaneae are provided. Ca. 48 families of spiders (Araneae) in Mid Cretaceous Burmese amber are listed; the report of the families Atypidae, Idiopidae and Ochyroceratidae is doubtful. The spiders of the Infraorder MYGALOMORPHA are treated, a provisional key to its families is given. The 9 superfamilies of the diverse clade SYNSPERMIATA are diagnosed, 20 families, 11 are known in Burmite, 5 are extinct. Synspermiata contains the three subclades Caponiomorpha, Dysderomorpha and Pholcomorpha. Ca. three quarters of haplogyne families in Burmite are members of the Synspermiata. I call the Cretaceous the “age of Synspermiata and Palpimanoidea (= Archaeoidea)”. The colulate and basically eight-eyed Synspermiata is actually not any more regarded as sister group of the family Filistatidae but of the clade CRIBELLATAE in a new sense which includes several diverse branches. Hence the name Basalhaplogynae WUNDERLICH 2019 is superfluous (name rejected). In my opinion the cribellum originated only once. The taxon Microsegestriinae WUNDERLICH 2004 (under Segestriidae) in Lebanese amber is now regarded as a questionable member of the superfamily Dysderoidea, probably Oonopidae (quest. n. relat.). Segestrioidea is split off from the Dysderoidea and contains three families. The family Ariadnidae WUNDERLICH 2004 (n. stat., elevated from Ariadninae) is unknown in Burmite. Jordansegestria WUNDERLICH 2015 with its generotype J. detruneo in Jordanian amber is regarded as a synonym of Parvosegestria WUNDERLICH 2015 of the new family Parvosegestriidae (n. syn. & n. relat.), based on Parvosegestria WUNDERLICH 2015. The genus Denticulsegestria WUNDERLICH 2015 is regarded as a synonym of Parvosegestria (n. syn.). The synonymy of Myansegestria WUNDERLICH 2015 with Parvosegestria is not excluded (n. quest. syn.). Magnosegestria tuber n. gen. n. sp. - a questionable member of the Segestriidae - in Burmite is described. The holotype of Magnosegestria tuber is considered to be the prey of a mygalomorph spider. Burmorsolidae WUNDERLICH 2015 (n. stat.) (from Burmorsolini) is transferred from the Plumorsolidae to the new superfamily Burmorsoloidea (n. relat.). With some hesitation the extant family Trogloraptoridae GRISWOLD et al. 2012 from Noth America is regarded as related to the Burmorsolidae (quest. n. relat.). Loxodercinae WUNDERLICH 2017 has previously been transferred from the family Eopsilodercidae WUNDERLICH 2008 to the Segestriidae: Segestriinae but is now regarded as a synonym of the Burmorsolidae (n. syn.). Burmorsolidae (under Burmorosolini) has erroneously been described by WUNDERLICH (2015) as a member of the family Plumorsolidae WUNDERLICH 2008. Plumorsolidae is known in Lebanese amber but is unknown in Burmese amber. This family is now regarded as a plesion, probably of the branch Dipneumonomorpha: Oecobioidea? (quest. n. relat.). Plumorsolidae in the previous sense of WUNDERLICH is not a monophyletic taxon: Loxoderces WUNDERLICH 2017 and Pseudorsolus WUNDERLICH 2017 are regarded as junior synonyms of Burmorsolus WUNDERLICH 2015 (n. syn.) of the family Burmorsolidae. – The relationships of the family Copaldictynidae WUNDERLICH 2004 n. stat. of the new taxon Agelenomorpha in subrecent COPAL FROM MADAGASCAR is revised and regarded as related to the extant families Titanoecidae and Nicodamidae of the Nicodamoidea (n. relat.). - The following FURTHER NEW TAXA are described (Burmorsoloidea and Segestrioidea: See above): Ctenizidae: Parvocteniza parvula n. gen. n. sp.; Nemesiidae: Burmesia sordida n. gen. n. sp., Myannemesia glaber n. gen. n. sp.; Theraphosidae: Protertheraphosinae n. subfam. based on Protertheraphosa spinosa n. gen. n. sp.; Oonopidae: Burmorchestina circular n. sp.; Burmorsolidae: Burmorsolus: globosus n. sp., longembolus n. sp. and longibulbus n. sp.; Eopsilodercidae: Propterpsiloderces crassitibia n. sp., P. cymbioseta n. sp., P. duplex n. sp.; Psilodercidae: Priscaleclercera furcate n. sp., P. hamo n. sp., P. liber n. sp.; the family Aliendiguetidae n. fam., a plesion probably close to the Ochyroceratoidea and Plectreuroidea, based on Aliendiguetia praecursor n. gen. n. sp.; Praepholcidae n. stat., from Eopsilodercidae: Praepholcinae: Hamoderces opilionoides n. gen. n. sp.; Tetrablemmidae: Bicornoculus granulans n. sp., Cymbioblemma fusca n. sp., C. hamoembolus n. sp., Electroblemma bifurcate n. sp., E. caula n. sp., E. pinnae n. sp., Eogamasomorpha rostratis n. sp., Unicornutiblemma n. gen., U. brevicornis n. gen., U. gracilicornis n. sp., U. longicornis n. sp.; Hersiliidae: ?Burmesiola kachinensis n. sp.; Archaeidae: ?Burmesarchea bilongapophyses n. sp.; Pholcochyroceridae: Spinicreber vacuus n. sp.; Praearaneidae: Praearaneus araneoides n. sp.; Zarqaraneidae: Palazarqaraneus hamulus n. gen. n. sp., Paurospina fastigata n. sp. ?Baalzebub mesozoicum PENNEY 2014 from the Late Cretaceous OF FRANCE (under Theridiosomatidae) is transferred to the family Zarqaraneidae (n. relat.) and regarded as the member of an undescribed genus. – A note on Burmese Tilin amber is added. Most important results of my studies (most are based on fossil spiders, too): (1) The orb web originated twice: First in the Deinopoidea (remains of a Cretaceous cribellate orb web exists) and - probably distinctly - later in the ecribellate Araneoidea (no sure proof of an orb weaving araneoid taxon exists in the Cretaceous in constrast to members of irregular web dwellers like Theridiidae and Zarqaraneidae); (2) the irregular (space) capture webs within the superfamily Araneoidea did not originate from an orb web. They are not derived but are ancient web types and an extinct araneoid species gave rise to the orb web; (3) the cribellum originated only once. The Dipneumonomorpha retained basically a DIVIDED cribellum - divided in the Family Filistatidae, divided, entire or lost in the remaining Dipneumonomorpha; it is secondarily entire in the Hypochilomorpha (see fig. A). (4) Losses (e. g.): Tarsal and metatarsal trichobothria were lost numerous times during spider evolution (like the cribellum, book lungs, feathery hairs, leg bristles and the anterior median eyes). (5) the RTA-clade may be close to the Deinopoidea (see fig. A). (6) the predecessor of the Synspermiata did PROBABLY not possess a cribellum – in this clade the anterior median spinnerets were directly transformed to a colulus (see figs. A, C). (7) The Cretaceous - and apparently already the Jurassic - was the era of haplogyne spiders, mainly of the Synspermiata (fig. C) and the - really haplogyne? – Palpimanoidea (= Archaeoidea) at least in higher strata of the vegetation. (8) Not a single sure proof of a Cretaceous member of the Retrolateral Tibial Apophysis (RTA)-clade in Burmite exists. Members of this clade – e. g. Jumping spiders (Salticidae) and Wolf spiders (Lycosidae) – are the most frequent and the most diverse spiders today besides members of the superfamily Araneoidea.

The genus Cyriocosmus Simon 1903 and two new species from Peru (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Radan Kaderka ,2019

A female of Cyriocosmus giganteus Kaderka 2016 is described and illustrated for the first time, a new diagnosis of this species is proposed. Cyriocosmus paredesi sp. nov. from Quebrada Putuiman (Marañon River) and Cyriocosmus foliatus sp. nov. from Umaral near Iquitos, both from Loreto Department in Peru, are described, diagnosed, illustrated and keyed. The male of Cyriocosmus sellatus (Simon 1889) from Rio Blanco, the tributary of Rio Tahuyao, Loreto Department in Peru, is redescribed and figured. The distribution area of this species is updated, and difficulties in the identification of this species are discussed.

A new species of Tiger spider in the genus Poecilotheria Pocock, 1899 (Araneae: Theraphosidae) from Belihuloya, Sri Lanka

Ranil P. Nanayakkara, G.A.S.M Ganehiarachchi, T.G. Tharaka Kusuminda, Nilantha Vishvanath, Mathisa K. Karunaratne, Peter J. Kirk ,2019

A new species of arboreal Theraphosidae spider from the genus Poecilotheria is described. This represents the second new Poecilotheria species described from the intermediate zone in Sri Lanka. Images are presented to distinguish the new species from Sri Lankan congeners.

Three new species of Euathlus Ausserer, 1875 (Araneae, Theraphosidae) from Argentina

Duniesky Ríos Tamayo ,2019

Euathlus Ausserer, 1875 is a South American genus of spiders of the family Theraphosidae known from Chile and Argentina. Three new species from Argentina: Euathlus mauryi sp. n. (from San Juan province), Euathlus grismadoi sp. n. (from La Rioja province), and Euathlus pampa sp. n. (from Salta province) are described here. New records of the previous species Euathlus diamante and Euathlus tenebrarum are contributed. The distribution of these new species expands the geographical distribution of the genus along the Andean hills, with Salta province as the northernmost record of the genus. A key is provided for identification of Euathlus species as well as a map with all the records in Argentina.

The first records of Holothele longipes (L. Koch, 1875) from Guyana and Panama (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Danniella Sherwood, Ray Gabriel ,2019

Specimens of the widely distributed ischnocoline species Holothele longipes (L. Koch, 1875) are formally reported from Guyana and Panama for the first time, based on examination of material from the collections of Natural History Museum, London, Oxford University Museum of Natural History and Museo de Invertebrados G. B. Fairchild, Universidad de Panama.

Taxonomy and phylogenetics of Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892 (Araneae, Theraphosidae)

Willian Fabiano-da-Silva, José Paulo Leite Guadanucci, Márcio Bernardino DaSilva ,2019

The tarantula genus Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892 (Theraphosinae) includes nine valid species, with records for the states of Bahia (T. nubilus, T. caymmii, T. amadoi, T. bethaniae, T. hypogeus, and T. mirim), Minas Gerais (T. perp and T. riopretano), and Pará (T. aridai), all in Brazil. In the present study, we reviewed the taxonomy of the Tmesiphantes species and performed a phylogenetic analysis using morphological characters. Four new species are described: T. amazonicus sp. nov., T. guayarus sp. nov., T. nordestinus sp. nov., and T. raulseixasi sp. nov., which expand the geographic distribution for the following states in Brazil: Goiás, Mato Grosso, Piauí, Paraíba, and Pernambuco, occurring in the Caatinga shrublands Cerrado savannas, Atlantic rain forest, and Brazilian Amazon. Phylogenetic analysis included 30 terminal taxa and 37 characters, including representatives of nine genera of Theraphosinae. The Tmesiphantes species formed a monophyletic group with the species hitherto included in Melloleitaoina and Magulla, with the latter being paraphyletic, which led us to propose the synonymy of these three genera. An updated diagnosis is proposed for the genus Tmesiphantes, which now comprises 19 species, occurring in major Brazilian biomes and in Argentina. A distribution map that includes all Tmesiphantes species and notes on their distributions are provided.

A new species of Ami Pérez-Miles, 2008 (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae) from the Amazon rainforest, Brazil

Marlus Queiroz Almeida, Lidianne Salvatierra, José Wellington de Morais ,2019

A new species of Ami Pérez-Miles, 2008 is described from the state of Amazonas in Brazil based on three males from Manaus. Ami valentinae sp. nov. is closely related to A. armihuariensis and A. caxiuana by the presence of a granular area on the embolus, but it differs from the first species by the presence of two retrolateral process on the male palpal tibia and differs by the latter by the morphology of the male palpal organ. A. valentinae sp. nov. is the first species of Ami reported for the Amazonas state and second species described for Brazil.

Systematic revision of Mexican threatened tarantulas Brachypelma (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae), with a description of a new genus, and implications on the conservation

Jorge Ivan Mendoza Marroquín, Oscar F. Francke ,2019

The tarantula genus Brachypelma includes colourful species that are highly sought after in the commercial pet trade. They are all included in CITES appendix II. We present phylogenetic analyses using molecular and morphological characters to revise Brachypelma, in which we include all currently known species. Our results agree with a previous study that shows the non-monophyly of Brachypelma. Both phylogenies strongly favour the division of Brachypelma into two smaller genera. The first clade (Brachypelma s.s.) is formed by B.albiceps, B. auratum, B. baumgarteni, B. boehmei, B. emilia, B. hamorii, B. klaasi and B. smithi. The species included in the second clade are transferred to the new genus Tliltocatl and is formed by T. albopilosum comb. nov., T. epicureanum comb. nov., T. kahlenbergi comb. nov., T. sabulosum comb. nov., T. schroederi comb. nov., T. vagans comb. nov. and T. verdezi comb. nov. Both genera can be differentiated by their coloration and the shape of the genitalia. We transfer to Tliltocatl: T. alvarezi, T. andrewi and T. aureoceps, but should be considered as nomina dubia. In addition, we transfer B. fossorium to Stichoplastoris. We discuss the implications of these taxonomical changes for CITES and for the Mexican Laws for wildlife protection.

A new species of Aphonopelma (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae) from the Madrean pine-oak woodlands of northeastern Sonora, Mexico

Brent E. Hendrixson ,2019

The tarantula spider genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 has received considerable attention in recent years but the group’s diversity remains poorly understood in Mexico, particularly in the pine-oak woodlands of the Sierra Madre Occidental and associated Madrean “Sky Islands”. A pair of tarantulas discovered from an unsampled region in the Sierra de Bacadéhuachi (the westernmost range of the Sierra Madre Occidental) in northeastern Sonora was found to be closely related to four species from the Madrean “Sky Islands” in Arizona and New Mexico. An integrative approach for delimiting species (incorporating data from molecular phylogenetics, morphology, distributions, and breeding periods) suggests that the specimens from Sierra de Bacadéhuachi belong to an undescribed species that is herein named Aphonopelma bacadehuachi sp. nov. This new species adds to our knowledge of an increasingly diverse assemblage of Aphonopelma from the Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Hotspot. Collaborations between Mexican and American researchers are needed to accelerate discovery and description of the group’s remaining diversity, particularly in light of the many threats facing the ecoregion including habitat degradation and climate change.

Tackling taxonomic redundancy in spiders: the infraspecific spider taxa described by Embrik Strand (Arachnida: Araneae)

Wolfgang Nentwig, Theo Blick, Daniel Gloor, Peter Jäger, Christian Kropf ,2019

Strand considered each deviation of specimens from the original description in colouration, body size and shape, eye pattern or leg spination as sufficient to describe infraspecific taxa such as subspecies, varieties, forms and aberrations. Following this problematic approach, he erected 165 infraspecific names which may reflect phenetics rather than evolutionary history. The aim of this paper is to review the 102 still valid names according to current taxonomic standards. Here we declare 39 subspecies as new synonyms of the nominate form, we confirm 10 previously overlooked synonymies of subspecies with the nominate form, and 26 taxa are nomina dubia (some described from juveniles or type material destroyed afterwards). In 24 cases we recommend in-depth taxonomic studies on subspecies and species complexes (subspecies and species inquirenda), in 3 cases we concluded on stat. nov. In detail, we propose the following changes: Acanthoctenus impar pygmaeus Strand, 1909 = Nothroctenus marshi (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897) syn. nov.; Agelena jumbo kiwuensis Strand, 1913 = Mistaria kiwuensis (Strand, 1913) stat. nov.; Aranea börneri clavimacula Strand, 1907 = Araneus boerneri (Strand, 1907) syn. nov.; Aranea börneri obscurella Strand, 1907 = Araneus boerneri (Strand, 1907) syn. nov.; Aranea dehaani octopunctigera Strand, 1911 = Parawixia dehaani octopunctigera (Strand, 1911) subspecies inquirenda; Aranea dehaani pygituberculata Strand, 1911 = Parawixia dehaani (Doleschall, 1859) syn. nov.; Aranea dehaani quadripunctigera Strand, 1911 = Parawixia dehaani (Doleschall, 1859) syn. nov.; Aranea rufipalpis fuscinotum Strand, 1908 = Neoscona fuscinotum (Strand, 1908) comb. nov.; Aranea rufipalpis nigrodecorata Strand, 1908 = nomen dubium (in Neoscona); Aranea rufipalpis punctipedella Strand, 1908 = nomen dubium (in Neoscona); Aranea rufipalpis strigatella Strand, 1908 = Neoscona strigatella (Strand, 1908) comb. nov.; Aranea theisi feisiana Strand, 1911 = Neoscona theisi syn. nov.; Aranea triangula mensamontella Strand, 1907 = Neoscona triangula (Keyserling, 1864) syn. nov.; Asagena tristis ruwenzorica Strand, 1913 = nomen dubium; Camaricus nigrotesselatus lineitarsus Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Clubiona abbajensis karisimbiensis Strand, 1916 = Clubiona abbajensis Strand, 1906 syn. nov.; Clubiona abbajensis maxima Strand, 1906 = nomen dubium; Corinna sanguinea inquirenda Strand, 1906 = Corinna sanguinea Strand, 1906 syn. nov.; Ctenus peregrinus sapperi Strand, 1916 = Ctenus peregrinus F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900 syn. nov.; Cyrtarachne tricolor aruana Strand, 1911 = Cyrtarachne tricolor (Doleschall, 1859) syn. nov.; Cyrtophora citricola abessinensis Strand, 1906 = Cyrtophora citricola (Forsskål, 1775) syn. nov.; Cyrtophora moluccensis albidinota Strand, 1911 = Cyrtophora moluccensis (Doleschall, 1857) syn. nov.; Cyrtophora moluccensis bukae Strand, 1911 = Cyrtophora moluccensis (Doleschall, 1857) syn. nov.; Cyrtophora moluccensis rubicundinota Strand, 1911 = Cyrtophora moluccensis (Doleschall, 1857) syn. nov.; Cyrtophora viridipes scalaris Strand, 1915 = Cyrtophora cylindroides (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Damastes coquereli affinis Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Gasteracantha aruana antemaculata Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha theisi Guérin, 1838) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha aruana keyana Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha theisi Guérin, 1838 syn. nov.; Gasteracantha bradleyi trivittinota Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha bradleyi univittinota Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha lepida rueppelli Strand, 1916 = nomen dubium; Gasteracantha signifera bistrigella Strand, 1911, Gasteracantha signifera heterospina Strand, 1915, Gasteracantha signifera pustulinota Strand, 1911 = subspecies inquirenda; Gasteracantha strasseni anirica Strand, 1915 = Gasteracantha pentagona (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha taeniata bawensis Strand, 1915 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha taeniata jamurensis Strand, 1915 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha taeniata maculella Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha taeniata obsoletopicta Strand, 1915 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha taeniata oinokensis Strand, 1915 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha taeniata sentanensis Strand, 1915 = Gasteracantha taeniata (Walckenaer, 1841) syn. nov.; Gasteracantha theisi quadrisignatella Strand, 1911 = Gasteracantha theisi Guérin, 1838 syn. nov.; Gnaphosa lapponum inermis Strand, 1899 = Gnaphosa lapponum (L. Koch, 1866) syn. nov.; Heteropoda pedata magna Strand, 1909 = nomen dubium; Heteropoda submaculata torricelliana Strand, 1911 = nomen dubium; Heteropoda sumatrana javacola Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Heteropoda venatoria pseudoemarginata Strand, 1909 = nomen dubium; Heteroscodra crassipes latithorax Strand, 1920 = Heteroscodra crassipes Hirst, 1907 syn. nov.; Hysterocrates affinis angusticeps Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Isopeda inola carinatula Strand, 1913 = Isopedella inola (Strand, 1913) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata anirensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata bukaensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata maitlandensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata mathiasensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata salomonum Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata squallyensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Leucauge grata tomaensis Strand, 1911 = Opadometa grata (Guérin, 1838) syn. conf.; Linyphia pusilla quadripunctata Strand, 1903 = Microlinyphia pusilla (Sundevall, 1830) syn. conf.; Lithyphantes paykulliana obsoleta Strand, 1908 = nomen dubium (in Steatoda); Lycosa fastosa viota Strand, 1914 = Pardosa fastosa (Keyserling, 1877) syn. nov.; Lycosa palustris islandica Strand, 1906 = Pardosa palustris (Linnaeus, 1758) syn. nov.; Lycosa proxima antoni Strand, 1915 = Pardosa proxima antoni (Strand, 1915) nomen dubium; Lycosa proxima annulatoides Strand, 1915 = Pardosa proxima annulatoides (Strand, 1915) subspecies inquirenda; Medmassa humilis reichardti Strand, 1916 = Xeropigo tridentiger (O. Pickard- Cambridge, 1869) syn. nov.; Myrmarachne maxillosa septemdentata Strand, 1907 = Toxeus septemdentatus (Strand, 1907) stat. nov. et comb. nov.; Nephila maculata malagassa Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Olios lamarcki taprobanicus Strand, 1913 = Olios taprobanicus Strand, 19013 stat. nov.; Oxyopes embriki Roewer, 1951 = nomen dubium; Oxyopes javanus nicobaricus Strand, 1907 = Oxyopes javanus Thorell, 1887 syn. nov.; Oxyopes variabilis dorsivittatus Strand, 1906 = nomen dubium; Oxyopes variabilis nigriventris Strand, 1906 = nomen dubium; Oxyopes variabilis Strand, 1906 = nomen dubium; Ozyptila trux devittata Strand, 1901 = nomen dubium; Panaretus chelata vittichelis Strand, 1911 = nomen dubium (in Heteropoda); Paraplectana thorntoni occidentalis Strand, 1916 = Paraplectana thorntoni (Blackwall, 1865) syn. nov.; Paraplectana walleri ashantensis Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Pediana regina isopedina Strand, 1913 = Pediana horni (Hogg, 1896) syn. conf.; Phlegra bresnieri meridionalis Strand, 1906 = Phlegra bresnieri (Lucas, 1846) syn. nov.; Phrynarachne rugosa infernalis Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium ; Regillus cinerascens sumatrae Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Scytodes quattuordecemmaculatus clarior Strand, 1907 = Scytodes quattuordecemmaculata Strand, 1907 syn. nov.; Spilargis ignicolor bimaculata Strand, 1909 = Spilargis ignicolor Simon, 1902 syn. nov.; Synema imitator (Pavesi, 1883) = Synema imitatrix (Pavesi, 1883) correction; Synema imitatrix meridionale Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Tarentula hispanica dufouri Strand, 1916 = Lycosa hispanica dufouri Simon, 1876 correction, subspecies inquirenda; Theridion inquinatum continentale Strand, 1907 = nomen dubium; Thomisus albus meridionalis Strand, 1907 = Thomisus onustus Walckenaer, 1805 syn. nov.

Another from Sri Lanka, after 126 years; Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae) from a fragmented forest patch in the wet zone of Sri Lanka

Ranil P. Nanayakkara, Amila Prasanna Sumanapala, Peter J. Kirk ,2019

The mygalomorph spider family Theraphosidae is represented by 980 species in 144 genera globally (World Spider Catalogue 2018). Within the family Theraphosidae sites the genus Chilobrachys. The genus Chilobrachys is found in South and East Asia, with 27 described species to date (World Spider Catalogue 2018). They are ground dwelling spiders, living in burrows lined with silk and other debris (Nanayakkara, 2013, Nanayakkara 2014b). In Sri Lanka the genus is represented by only one species, namely Nanayakkara 2014b), which also happens to be the type species (species typica) for the genus.

The revised taxonomic placement of some arboreal Ornithoctoninae Pocock, 1895 with description of a new species of Omothymus Thorell, 1891 (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Ray Gabriel, Danniella Sherwood ,2019

The chaotic taxonomy of the subfamily Ornithoctoninae Pocock, 1895 is partially addressed, with a focus on redefining the arboreal genera Lampropelma Simon, 1892, Omothymus Thorell, 1891, and Phormingochilus Pocock, 1895. Previous works placing heavy emphasis on unstable taxonomic characters are addressed and stable taxonomic features presented for the clear delineation of males of arboreal ornithoctonine genera. The male of Phormingochilus everetti Pocock, 1895 is described for the first time. A new species, Omothymus rafni sp. nov. is described from historical material collected in Sumatra. Lampropelma violaceopes Abraham, 1924 is transferred to Omothymus based on comparative leg measurements and geographical location comb. nov. Lampropelma nigerrimum arboricola Schmidt & Barensteiner, 2015 is transferred to the genus Phormingochilus with full species status acknowledged, giving the new combination Phormingochilus arboricola comb. nov. Omothymus thorelli Simon, 1901 is considered a junior synonym of Omothymus schioedtei Thorell, 1891 syn. nov., based on similar morphology and geographical locations. Phormingochilus carpenteri Smith & Jacobi, 2015 is transferred to the genus Lampropelma based on comparative leg measurements and geographical location comb. nov. Phormingochilus kirki Smith & Jacobi, 2015 is considered a junior synonym of L. carpenteri syn. nov. Phormingochilus fuchsi Strand, 1906 is transferred to the genus Omothymus based on comparative leg measurement and geographic distribution comb. nov. Phormingochilus tigrinus Pocock, 1895 is removed from synonymy with P. everetti based on the lack of justification for the synonymy comb. rest. Omothymus dromeus Chamberlin, 1917 is removed from Omothymus and returned to the restored genus Melognathus comb. rest.

Aphonopelma braunshausenii Tesmoingt, 1996 is a nomen dubium, with review of some historic morphological characters ineffective at species delineation (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Danniella Sherwood ,2019

Aphonopelma braunshausenii Tesmoingt, 1996 is regarded as a nomen dubium due to the lack of a deposited holotype, an inadequate description which gives no stable taxonomic features to differentiate it from any other species and the absence of an exact type locality. The instability of some morphological characters which were given weight for species delineation in many earlier works is discussed and illustrated.

Revised taxonomic status of some Mexican and Central American tarantulas (Araneae: Theraphosidae), with transfers from Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901, and a new genus from the Pacific lowlands of Nicaragua and Costa Rica

Stuart J. Longhorn , Ray Gabriel ,2019

The type material of several Central American tarantulas (Theraphosidae; Theraphosinae) were re-examined within a broader revision involving the defunct genus Eurypelma Koch, 1850 and the poorly defined Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901. Here, we create the new monotypic genus Sandinista gen. nov. for a revised taxon Sandinista lanceolatum (Simon, 1891) comb. nov., which is a small tarantula from the Pacific lowland dry forests of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. It was originally described under Eurypelma and later transferred to Aphonopelma without justification. Based on comparison of type specimens against new material, we emphasise its unusual bulb anatomy to rediagnose it as a new genus with suggested close affinity to Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (sensu stricto), Sphaerobothria Karsch, 1897, and Stichoplastoris Rudloff, 1997. We also re-examined the type material of Brachypelma fossorium Valerio, 1980, which is here treated as a junior synonym of S. lanceolatum, syn. nov. We also discuss the Mexican/Central American genus Crassicrus Reichling & West, 1999, into which we transfer another former Eurypelma from the Yucatán. This species was later called Aphonopelma stoicum (Chamberlin, 1925), which we revise as Crassicrus stoicum comb. nov. and contrast against other described congeners. We also re-evaluate two other specimens later determined as Aphonopelma stoicum by Schmidt & Piepho (1997), including the alleged first female for the species, and consider them as mis-identified congeners. Finally, we provide some discussion on Citharacanthus meermani Reichling & West, 2000 from Belize in the context of Crassicrus, due to similar aspects of their male palpal bulb morphology, highlighting potentially informative aspects.

Neischnocolus Petrunkevitch, 1925, senior synonym of Ami Pérez-Miles, 2008 and Barropelma Chamberlin, 1940 (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Fernando Pérez-Miles, Ray Gabriel, Danniella Sherwood ,2019

The recent rediscovery and examination of the holotype of Neischnocolus panamanus Petrunkevitch, 1925 and its comparison with type material of the genera Barropelma Chamberlin, 1940 and Ami Pérez-Miles, 2008 led us to establish their generic synonymy. Ami species and the monotypic Barropelma parvior (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936) fit with the diagnostic characters of Neischnocolus, with the presence of modified type I urticating setae and the singular spermathecal morphology. B. parvior is considered a junior synonym of N. panamanus syn. nov. based on genital organ morphology and geographical location. Ami bladesi Pérez- Miles, Gabriel & Gallon, 2008 is also considered a junior synonym of Neischnocolus panamanus syn nov. based on genital organ morphology and geographical location. As a consequence, of the synonymies of the genera Barropelma and Ami with Neischnocolus, seven new combinations are created: N. amazonica comb. nov., N. armihuarensis comb. nov., N. caxiuana comb. nov., N. obscurus comb. nov., N. pijaos comb. nov., N. weinmanni comb. nov. and N. yupanquii comb. nov.

A new synonymy in the genus Homoeomma Ausserer, 1871 (Araneae, Theraphosidae), with comments on potential homonymy

Danniella Sherwood, Ray Gabriel, Stuart J. Longhorn ,2019

Montenegro et al. (2018) reported the theraphosid spider genus Homoeomma Ausserer, 1871 from Chile and described a new species of this genus with distinctive red and black colouration, naming it Homoeomma chilensis Montenegro & Aguilera, 2018. Soon after, Sherwood et al. (2018) described Homoeomma bicolor also from Chile having the same colouration. In this work, we demonstrate these nominal species to be synonymous and H. chilensis is regarded as the valid senior synonym of H. bicolor following the Article 23 of the Code (Anonymous 1999). This case represents an instance where two independent scientific teams described the same taxon, in different journals published within a very short period of time of each other, respectively dated October and November of the same year, causing two available binominal names to exist for a single species (Anonymous 2019). Here we resolve this situation through synonymy, discuss an additional morphological character not mentioned in the original description by Montenegro et al. (2018) and note further intraspecific variation that exists for H. chilensis. Potential homonymy in Chilean theraphosid nomenclature is also discussed.