Hapalotremus exilis (Mello-Leitão, 1923) and Hapalotremus muticus (Mello-Leitão, 1923), previously considered as nomina dubia are here revalidated through the examination of the holotypes. Dolichothele Mello-Leitão, 1923 is revalidated and their type species, Dolichothele exilis Mello-Leitão, 1923 is restored. Goniodontium Mello-Leitão, 1923 and Oligoxystre Vellard, 1924 are considered junior synonyms of Dolichothele. Hapalotremus muticus and Oligoxystre caatinga Guadanucci, 2007 are considered junior synonyms of D. exilis. All species of Oligoxystre are transferred to Dolichothele. Cyclothoracoides Strand, 1929, currently a junior synonym of Hapalotremus Simon, 1903, is here considered a junior synonym of Homoeomma Ausserer, 1871.
The new genus Neoholothele
is herein described based on the results of a recent phylogenetic analysis. This phylogeny, which included representatives of all Theraphosidae
subfamilies, showed that the genus Holothele
, as hitherto defined, does not comprise a monophyletic group. Neoholothele
gen. nov. is diagnosed by the following features: males and females with dark carapace and golden cephalic region; females with striped color pattern on the abdomen dorsum and long and slender spermathecae receptacula; males with retrolateral branch of male tibial spur with apical end wider than proximal end (synapomorphy), with two apical spines. It comprises two species: N. incei
(F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898) comb. nov. and N. fasciaaurinigra
sp. nov., both from northern South America.
Three unknown species of Euathlus
Ausserer 1875 (Araneae: Theraphosidae) are recognized and formally described. Euathlus diamante
Ferretti sp. nov., E. sagei
Ferretti sp. nov., and E. tenebrarum
Ferretti sp. nov. are described from the Mendoza and Neuquén provinces of western Argentina. The cladistic analysis showed Euathlus
as monophyletic supported by the following synapomorphies: i) male tibial apophysis with fused branches bases; ii) presence of a ventral spine on retrolateral branch of male tibial apophysis; iii) sternum longer than wide. According to this cladistics analysis, a tree topology of (Homoeomma uruguayense
(Mello-Leitão 1946) (Plesiopelma longisternale
(Schiapelli & Gerschman 1942) (Grammostola anthracina
(C.L. Koch 1842) (Phrixotrichus scrofa
(Molina 1788) (E. tenebrarum
sp. nov. (E. truculentus
L. Koch 1875, E. sagei
sp. nov. ((E. parvulus
(Pocock 1903) (E. condorito
Perafán & Pérez-Miles 2014, E. manicata
(Simon 1892), E. atacama
Perafán & Pérez-Miles 2014)) (E. antai
Perafán & Pérez-Miles 2014, E. diamante
sp. nov.)))))))) is reported.
Three new arboreal theraphosid spiders of the
genus Phormingochilus Pocock, 1895 are here
described from Sulawesi and Sarawak,
Borneo: Phormingochilus carpenteri sp. nov.,
P. kirki sp. nov., and P. pennellhewletti sp. nov.
The genus has been revised and historical
species redescribed. The authors have also
discussed the placement of the
Ornithoctoninae genera Cyriopagopus Simon,
1887, Lampropelma Simon, 1892 and
Omothymus Thorell, 1891 and, after an
examination of the type material, concluded
that Cyriopagopus is a senior synonym of the
genus Haplopelma Simon, 1892 and that the
genus Omothymus needs to be restored to
house the arboreal Malaysian mainland
species schioedtei (Thorell, 1891) and thorelli
(Simon, 1901), which were formerly assigned
to the genus Cyriopagopus but have now
been restored to their original placement. We
have also concluded, on examination of the
type material that the female of Lampropelma
violaceopes Abraham, 1924 from Southern
Malaysia should be removed from the genus
Lampropelma (whose distribution at present,
we believe to be limited to Lampropelma
nigerrimum from Sangihe (Sangir) Island) and
placed in the genus Omothymus, whereas the
male, from Penang, is deemed to be a
misidentified specimen of Cyriopagopus
A new monotypic genus of Theraphosidae is described from Colombia: Aguapanela
Perafán & Cifuentes gen. nov. with only the type species Aguapanela arvi
Perafán, Cifuentes & Estrada sp. nov., from Caldas and Medellin, Antioquia, Colombian Andes. The new genus differs from other theraphosid spiders mainly in the presence of stridulatory setae on the palps and legs I and II, together with the presence of type III and IV urticating setae. Males lack a tibial apophysis on leg I and have a simple palpal bulb with the subtegulum less extended than usual in Theraphosinae, elongated curved embolus, ventrally concave, and with two prolateral keels very flat and developed on the dorsal edge. The female spermathecae have two digitiform elongated and granulated seminal receptacles attached to a semicircular wide membranous base. We describe, diagnose and illustrate the new genus and give some biological remarks. Morphological, systematic and biogeographic aspects are discussed. Chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles of its venom are analyzed.
The tarantula genus Sericopelma was originally defined based on male specimens, most notably lacking tibial spurs on leg I. Early female specimens were unrecognised as Sericopelma, and typically placed in Eurypelma – a dumping ground for problem specimens. The first females were only later recognised, but authors failed to adequately define female Sericopelma. Here, the holotypes of the Southern-most alleged Brachypelma species, B. embrithes (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936) and B. angustum Valerio, 1980 were examined, and finding both to possess defining characteristics of Sericopelma were transferred. The taxonomic attributes to define Sericopelma relative to Brachypelma and select other Neotropical genera are discussed, especially for females. As important diagnostic characters for Sericopelma, the single (unilobar) spermathecae
swollen at the apex forming a P-shaped cross-section, metatarsus IV with trace scopula, femur IV with a dense retrolateral pad of plumose hair, plus other attributes. Some past confusion in these characters are clarified and Sericopelma relative to Brachypelma and Megaphobema mesomelas are discussed. Finally recommendations are given about these taxonomic changes for CITES regulations.
This is the first record for the tarantula
Vitalius longisternalis Bertani, 2001 in Parana and
Araucaria Forests, Misiones province, northeastern
Argentina. Specimens were found at Iguazú National
Park and Urugua-í Wildlife Reserve. Data on its natural
history is provided.
sp. nov., C. itayensis
sp. nov., C. aueri
sp. nov., C. giganteus
sp. nov. from Peru, Loreto region, C. hoeferi
sp. nov. from Brazil, C. williamlamari
sp. nov. and C. nicholausgordoni
sp. nov. from Venezuela are described, illustrated, diagnosed and both sexes, if known, keyed. New Peruvian species can be distinguished from all congeners, except C. bertae
Pérez-Miles, 1998 and C. pribiki
Pérez-Miles and Weinmann, 2009, by the uniformly coloured carapace and abdomen without stripes and by the short paraembolic apophysis in male palpal bulb. The female of Cyriocosmus ritae
Pérez-Miles, 1998 is described for the first time from a known Peruvian population near Iquitos.
Berland, 1917 is illustrated,
redescribed and, along with Phoneyusa celerierae
and Phoneyusa efuliensis
Smith, 1990, transferred to the genus
Simon, 1892. Type material of Hysterocrates
Pocock, 1897 and topotypes of Phoneyusa lesserti
1973 are illustrated for comparison. Phoneyusa nigroventris
(Marx, 1893) is treated as nomen dubium.
The arboreal spiders in the genus Poecilotheria is represented by 16 species and restricted to India and Sri Lanka. Each country has eight endemic species. During a survey on mygalomorph spiders in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka, the critically endangered species of Theraphosidae Poecilotheria hanumavilasumica was discovered for the first time outside of its native habitat in India, expanding its range to northern Sri Lanka. The discovery of P. hanumavilasumica is unique, as it used to be a critically endangered and endemic species of the genus Poecilotheria found in India, and it is evident that during the land bridge connection between India and Sri Lanka, when the Pleistocene epoch biotic exchange took place between the two countries, taxa were dispersed through the land connections.
A new species of Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892 is described and illustrated, based on eight male specimens collected at the Una Biological Reserve, southern state of Bahia, Brazil. It is distinguished by the morphology of male palpal bulb and tibial apophysis. The new species is very small and is the smallest theraphosid described to date (body length 5.5 mm). It is distinguished from congeners by the size, which vary from 12 mm (T. riopretano) to 23.8 mm (T.
nubilus) in other species of the genus, aspect of palpal bulb, sternal posterior sigillae close to sternal margin and by the aspect of tibial apophysis which lacks the prolateral branch. Tmesiphantes presently comprises nine species. Sixth have been described for the southern region of Bahia, a well known area of endemism in the Atlantic Forest. Identification keys for Tmesiphantes males and females are presented.
A new tarantula species of the genus Phlogiellus Pocock, 1897,
P. kwebaburdeos n. sp. is described and illustrated based on a series of
specimens collected inside the Puting Bato Cave 3-4 in Burdeos, Polilio
Island, Quezon Province, Philippines. P. kwebaburdeos Barrion-Dupo, Barrion
and Rasalan n. sp., a cave-dwelling mygalomorph spider represents the fifth
and sixteenth species of Phlogiellus reported in the Philippines and in Southand
Southeast Asia, respectively.
Male of Annandaliella travancorica Hirst, 1909 (Fam: Theraphosidae) is recorded from Kozhikode, India. Detailed morphological characters and illustrations of body and copulatory organs of the species are presented. Information on new localities are also mentioned.
Ami armihuariensis sp. nov. from Cuzco region, Peru is described, diagnosed and figured.
Males of Ami armihuariensis sp. nov. differ from all other congeners, except A. pijaos, by
the presence of only one retrolateral process on male palpal tibia, from A. pijaos by the
granulation in tegular area of male palpal bulb. Additionally, photographs of A. yupanquii
spermatheca are for the first time presented in order to emphasize the characteristic shape of spermathecae in this genus.
Psalmopoeus rufus Petrunkevitch, 1925 is
relegated to a synonym of Psalmopoeus pulcher
Petrunkevitch, 1925. Psalmopoeus affinis Strand,
1907 is regarded as Nomen dubium.
Vision is a remarkable sensory adaptation; however, natural selection may not favor maintenance of eye function in habitats where eyesight does not contribute to fitness. Vision loss is relatively common in cave-dwelling spiders in the temperate zone, but appears rarer in tropical caves. To date, blind spiders in the (sub)tropical Caribbean have only been described from Cuba and Jamaica, including four pholcids, a barychelid, a ctenid, and a prodidomid with reduced eyes. In our survey of over 40 caves in the Greater Antilles, mainly Puerto Rico, Isla Mona, Cuba, and Dominican Republic, we have not previously found any eyeless spiders. Here we summarize information on blind Caribbean spiders, and describe two newly discovered species representing two families, from a single cave, Cueva Seibo, in the Dominican Republic. These are the eyeless Ciba seibo n. gen., n. sp. (Ctenidae) and the vestigial-eyed Trichopelma maddeni n. sp.
(Barychelidae). Cueva Seibo appears to be an energy-poor system with a relatively small bat population and is physiologically unique amongst caves we surveyed. We postulate that troglobiomorphism in the Caribbean may result from individual cave environments and hypothesize convergent eye loss within this cave, as most members of both families,
including epigean species from the Dominican Republic, have normal eyes. However, another blind species, Ciba calzada (Alayo´n 1985) n. comb., occurs in a cave in Cuba and it remains to be tested if eye loss occurred in these two convergently, or if their shared lack of eyes is homologous.
We propose the name Bumba
as a new name for Maraca, preoccupied by Maraca
Hebard, 1926 (Orthoptera). We describe and illustrate Bumba lennoni
, a new theraphosid species from Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil. This species differs from the other species of the genus in the extremely reduced keel on male palpal organ and in the higher number of labial and maxillary cuspules. Females additionally differ in the spermathecal morphology. As a consequence of the name replacement, three new combinations are established.
A new species of Hapalotremus Simon, 1903 from northern Argentina is described and illustrated. Hapalotremus martinorum sp. nov. differs from all other congeners by the colour pattern of live specimens. Males differ in the male palpal bulb morphology, with thickened and less curved embolus having a blunt subapical keel and less-developed apical keel. Females differ in the shape of the spermathecae, with the lateral bases more pronounced than the superiors and the upper edge more rounded. Specimens were captured inhabiting short burrows or crevices under stones in high cloud forests. Hapalotremus cyclothorax (Mello-Leitão 1923) is a junior synonym of Homoeomma montanum (Mello-Leitão, 1923), Hapalotremus scintillans (Mello-Leitão 1929) is a junior synonym of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901, Hapalotremus exilis (Mello-Leitão 1923) and Hapalotremus muticus (Mello-Leitão 1923) are considered species inquirenda.
A new species of tarantula, Psalmopoeus victori sp. nov. (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) is described from Veracruz, Mexico. It is the first arboreal species described in Mexico and represents the most northerly known distribution for the genus Psalmopoeus. A detailed description of the lyra is presented.
The information about mygalomorph spiders (Dipluridae y Theraphosidae) of Estado de Mexico is presented, new locations are cited, three species are cited for the first time, four new species of the Theraphosidae family are described, and data on the genus Davus O.
Pickard-Cambridge, 1892 are provided as well as most significance taxonomic characteristics are illustrated.
A new species of Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892, T. aridai sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on three males and three females collected at the Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, Santarém, state of Pará, Brazil. Males can be distinguished from T. perp Guadanucci & Silva, 2012 by the palpal bulb with an inconspicous tegular basal projection, but presenting a very slender embolus with shorter keels not extending to the tip, and from T. nubilus Simon, 1892 by the tibial apophysis with two similarly sized branches, the prolateral one with a strong spine on the retrolateral margin. Females resemble T. nubilus by the aspect of the seminal receptacle but the constriction near the apex is less evident and apex shape is irregular. The new species represents the first record of Tmesiphantes from the Amazonian region, bringing the total number of species to eight.
A distinctive new species of ground burrowing tarantula from Western Ghats endemic genus Thrigmopoeus is described from Kerala State, India. Thrigmopoeus psychedelicus sp. nov. differs from putative species of the genus in the adults being black overall with a metallic blue lustre on the carapace and abdomen. Females of Thrigmopoeus psychedelicus sp. nov. exhibit polychromatism. Juveniles and sub-adults are paler with vibrant maroon colouration on its abdomen whereas adult females are much darker and lack vibrant colouration as sub-adults.
A new species of Chaetopelma Ausserer, 1871 is described from Hatay province, Turkey. Differences between the new species and related species are discussed. The characteristic features of this species are described and illustrated.
The genus Euthycaelus Simon 1889 is diagnosed based on the examination of type-material and additional material from Venezuela and Colombia. The genus now includes: Euthycaelus colonicus Simon 1889, E. norae sp. nov., E. amandae sp. nov.; Euthycaelus steini Simon 1889 is transferred to Psalistops comb. nov. The genus Schismatothele Karsch 1879 is considered a senior synonym of Hemiercus Simon 1903. Schismatothele includes S. lineata Karsch 1879, S. inflata (Simon 1889) comb. nov., S. modesta (Simon 1889) comb. nov, and S. benedettii Panzera et al. 2011. Hemiercus proximus Mello-Leitão 1923, from Cubatão, São Paulo, Brazil, is transferred to Acanthoscurria proxima (Mello-Leitão 1923) comb. nov. Hemiercus kastoni Caporiacco 1955 is considered a species inquirenda pending the examination of the type material.
A new species namely Haploclastus devamatha (Theraphosidae) is described from Western Ghats of Kerala, India. Detailed morphological characters and illustrations of body and copulatory organs of the species are presented.
The genus Ischnocolus is redefined based on type material, and extra specimens. Representatives of the genus are distinguished by clavate tarsal trichobothria arranged in median apical row; by the maxillae with lighter colour on prolateral edge. Males of the genus Ischnocolus Ausserer are recognized by the cheliceral intumescence, sigmoid ventral furrow on palpal tibia, unequal cymbium lobes, tibial apophysis absent, great number of spines on ventral side of tibia I, and male superior tarsal claws bipectinate. Species included are: Ischnocolus valentinus (Dufour) [= I. holosericeus L. Koch, I. triangulifer Ausserer, I. algericus Thorell, I. fuscostriatus Simon, I. maroccanus (Simon), I. mogadorensis (Simon), I. numidus Simon, I. tripolitanus Caporiacco, Avicularia andalusiaca Simon], Ischnocolus hancocki Smith, Ischnocolus jickelii L. Koch (senior-synonym of Chaetopelma adenense Simon) and Ischnocolus ignoratus sp. nov. Ischnocolus tomentosus Thorell is considered incertae sedis. The following species are considered species inquirenda: I. tunetanus Pavesi and I. fasciculatus Strand.
Two new species of tarantulas from Mexico are described and illustrated: Bonnetina tenuiverpis and Bonnetina juxtantricola, from the states of Mexico and Guerrero, respectively. Male palpal bulbs, tibial apophyses and spermatheca are among the most taxonomically informative characters. Male bulb microstructure is revealed from scanning electron microscopy; both new and homologous structures to other Theraphosinae genera are identified and described. Nomenclatural changes for male tibial apophyses are also proposed. The holotype male and allotype female of one of the species are molecularly characterized and matched from CO1 partial sequence.
Based on a phylogenetic analysis we revised the Chilean tarantula genera Euathlus and Paraphysa. As results of our analyses, within a wider context of South American lineages, Paraphysa is synonymous of Euathlus, and Phrixotrichus is resurrected. Euathlus and Phrixotrichus are sister genera, supported by their shared palpal organ morphology, especially at the ventral position of the distal prolateral inferior keel, also by spermathecal receptacles with a lateral chamber, and tarsal claws without teeth. Both genera are redefined based on cladistic results, and some of their constituent species are transferred. We describe four new species, and for the first time present the spermathecae of Euathlus parvulus comb. nov. All species described for both genera are diagnosed and keyed. Euathlus now includes: Euathlus antai Perafán and Pérez-Miles sp. nov., Euathlus atacama Perafán and Pérez-Miles sp. nov., Euathlus condorito Perafán and Pérez-Miles sp. nov., Euathlus manicata (Simon 1892) comb. nov., Euathlus parvulus (Pocock, 1903) comb. nov. and Euathlus truculentus L. Koch, 1875. Phrixotrichus now comprises: Phrixotrichus jara Perafán and Pérez-Miles sp. nov., Phrixotrichus scrofa (Molina, 1788) comb. nov. and Phrixotrichus vulpinus (Karsch, 1880) comb. nov. Furthermore, Paraphysa riparia Schmidt and Bolle, 2008 is synonymized with Eupalaestrus weijenberghi (Thorell, 1894), Paraphysa pulcherrimaklaasi Schmidt, 1991 is transferred to Maraca Pérez-Miles, 2006 and Paraphysa peruviana Schmidt, 2007 is considered a nomen dubium.
The theraphosine genus Hemirrhagus Simon 1903 is revised based on the examination of the type specimens and additional material collected in Mexico. Eight species were redescribed and illustrated. The males of Hemirrhagus ocellatus, Hemirrhagus papalotl, and Hemirrhagus stygius, formerly unknown, are described for the first time. Five new species were recognized and are newly described and illustrated. Hence, Hemirrhagus comprises 21 valid species, all endemic to Mexico. All species are keyed and mapped. New taxonomic features are included in the descriptions and different types of stridulatory organs are described for the first time for the genus. It is reported for the first time that Hemirrhagus is the only known Theraphosinae that lays fixed egg-sacs. Hemirrhagus embolulatus sp. nov. is described as the only known Hemirrhagus that possesses embolus keels present in other Theraphosinae genera. Information on species habitat and reproduction are included. © 2014 The Linnean Society of London