The chaotic taxonomy of the subfamily Ornithoctoninae
Pocock, 1895 is partially addressed, with a focus on redefining
the arboreal genera Lampropelma Simon, 1892, Omothymus
Thorell, 1891, and Phormingochilus Pocock, 1895. Previous
works placing heavy emphasis on unstable taxonomic characters
are addressed and stable taxonomic features presented for the
clear delineation of males of arboreal ornithoctonine genera.
The male of Phormingochilus everetti Pocock, 1895 is described
for the first time. A new species, Omothymus rafni sp. nov.
is described from historical material collected in Sumatra.
Lampropelma violaceopes Abraham, 1924 is transferred to
Omothymus based on comparative leg measurements and
geographical location comb. nov. Lampropelma nigerrimum
arboricola Schmidt & Barensteiner, 2015 is transferred to the
genus Phormingochilus with full species status acknowledged,
giving the new combination Phormingochilus arboricola
comb. nov. Omothymus thorelli Simon, 1901 is considered
a junior synonym of Omothymus schioedtei Thorell, 1891
syn. nov., based on similar morphology and geographical
locations. Phormingochilus carpenteri Smith & Jacobi, 2015
is transferred to the genus Lampropelma based on comparative
leg measurements and geographical location comb. nov.
Phormingochilus kirki Smith & Jacobi, 2015 is considered a
junior synonym of L. carpenteri syn. nov. Phormingochilus
fuchsi Strand, 1906 is transferred to the genus Omothymus based
on comparative leg measurement and geographic distribution
comb. nov. Phormingochilus tigrinus Pocock, 1895 is removed
from synonymy with P. everetti based on the lack of justification
for the synonymy comb. rest. Omothymus dromeus Chamberlin,
1917 is removed from Omothymus and returned to the restored
genus Melognathus comb. rest.
Aphonopelma braunshausenii Tesmoingt, 1996 is regarded as a nomen dubium due to the lack of a deposited holotype, an inadequate description which gives no stable taxonomic features to differentiate it from any other species and the absence of an exact type locality. The instability of some morphological characters which were given weight for species delineation in many earlier works is discussed and illustrated.
The type material of several Central American tarantulas
(Theraphosidae; Theraphosinae) were re-examined within a
broader revision involving the defunct genus Eurypelma Koch,
1850 and the poorly defined Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901. Here,
we create the new monotypic genus Sandinista gen. nov. for
a revised taxon Sandinista lanceolatum (Simon, 1891) comb.
nov., which is a small tarantula from the Pacific lowland dry
forests of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. It was originally described
under Eurypelma and later transferred to Aphonopelma without
justification. Based on comparison of type specimens against
new material, we emphasise its unusual bulb anatomy to rediagnose
it as a new genus with suggested close affinity to
Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (sensu stricto), Sphaerobothria
Karsch, 1897, and Stichoplastoris Rudloff, 1997. We also
re-examined the type material of Brachypelma fossorium
Valerio, 1980, which is here treated as a junior synonym of S.
lanceolatum, syn. nov. We also discuss the Mexican/Central
American genus Crassicrus Reichling & West, 1999, into which
we transfer another former Eurypelma from the Yucatán. This
species was later called Aphonopelma stoicum (Chamberlin,
1925), which we revise as Crassicrus stoicum comb. nov. and
contrast against other described congeners. We also re-evaluate
two other specimens later determined as Aphonopelma stoicum
by Schmidt & Piepho (1997), including the alleged first female
for the species, and consider them as mis-identified congeners.
Finally, we provide some discussion on Citharacanthus
meermani Reichling & West, 2000 from Belize in the context
of Crassicrus, due to similar aspects of their male palpal bulb
morphology, highlighting potentially informative aspects.
The recent rediscovery and examination of the holotype
of Neischnocolus panamanus Petrunkevitch, 1925 and its
comparison with type material of the genera Barropelma
Chamberlin, 1940 and Ami Pérez-Miles, 2008 led us to
establish their generic synonymy. Ami species and the
monotypic Barropelma parvior (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936)
fit with the diagnostic characters of Neischnocolus, with the
presence of modified type I urticating setae and the singular
spermathecal morphology. B. parvior is considered a junior
synonym of N. panamanus syn. nov. based on genital organ
morphology and geographical location. Ami bladesi Pérez-
Miles, Gabriel & Gallon, 2008 is also considered a junior
synonym of Neischnocolus panamanus syn nov. based on
genital organ morphology and geographical location. As a
consequence, of the synonymies of the genera Barropelma and
Ami with Neischnocolus, seven new combinations are created:
N. amazonica comb. nov., N. armihuarensis comb. nov., N.
caxiuana comb. nov., N. obscurus comb. nov., N. pijaos comb.
nov., N. weinmanni comb. nov. and N. yupanquii comb. nov.
Montenegro et al. (2018) reported the theraphosid spider genus Homoeomma Ausserer, 1871 from Chile and described a new species of this genus with distinctive red and black colouration, naming it Homoeomma chilensis Montenegro & Aguilera, 2018. Soon after, Sherwood et al. (2018) described Homoeomma bicolor also from Chile having the same colouration. In this work, we demonstrate these nominal species to be synonymous and H. chilensis is regarded as the valid senior synonym of H. bicolor following the Article 23 of the Code (Anonymous 1999).
This case represents an instance where two independent scientific teams described the same taxon, in different journals published within a very short period of time of each other, respectively dated October and November of the same year, causing two available binominal names to exist for a single species (Anonymous 2019). Here we resolve this situation through synonymy, discuss an additional morphological character not mentioned in the original description by Montenegro et al. (2018) and note further intraspecific variation that exists for H. chilensis. Potential homonymy in Chilean theraphosid nomenclature is also discussed.
Poecilotheria chaojii Mirza, Sanap & Bhosale, 2014 is proposed as a junior synonym of Poecilotheria tigrinawesseliSmith, 2006 n. syn., based on morphology and distribution. The variability of morphological features given by Mirza, Sanap & Bhosale (2014) is discussed.
During 2015 and 2016 several baboon spider specimens (Araneae: Theraphosidae) were collected in central Angola during surveys undertaken for the Okavango Wilderness Project. These collections represent range and habitat extensions for Pterinochilus Pocock, 1897, Ceratogyrus Pocock, 1897 and Phoneyusa Karsch, 1884. The new species Ceratogyrus attonitifer sp. n. is described from female specimens and the distribution of genera mapped. Central and eastern Angola is severely under sampled for theraphosid spiders, with every species collected during the survey either being potentially new to science or representing a significant range extension for the genus.
A new genus and species of the subfamily Selenocosmiinae Simon, 1892 are described from Sarawak, Borneo: Birupes simoroxigorum gen. et sp. nov. with discussion on the use of palpal bulb, spermathecae and stridulatory organ morphology in selenocosmiine systematics.
The spider subfamily Schismatothelinae from Colombia is revised. One new species of Euthycaelus Simon 1889 and three new species of Schismatothele Karsch 1879 are named, as well as new geographical records provided. E. guane sp. nov. from Santander, S. hacaritama sp. nov. from Norte de Santander, S. olsoni sp. nov. from Norte de Santander and Táchira (Venezuela), and S. weinmanni sp. nov. from Cundinamarca are herein described, diagnosed and illustrated. Schismatothele is newly recorded from Colombia. Morphological aspects and diversity of the Ischnocolinae and Schismatothelinae from Colombia are discussed. An identification key to species of these subfamilies from Colombia is provided.
The family Theraphosidae is recorded from Greece for the first time with the description of a new species, Chaetopelma lymberakisi sp. n. Also, the male of Macrothele cretica Kulczyński, 1903 is re-described and the female of the same species is described for the first time.
The paper provides additional information on the taxonomy of the theraphosid
genus Ischnocolus Ausserer, 1871. A new combination is proposed: Ischnocolus
elongatus (Simon, 1873), n. comb. (ex Cyrtauchenius). The hitherto unknown
males of I. hancocki Smith, 1990 and I. jickelii (L. Koch, 1875) are depicted and
described for the first time. Illustrations of the male palpal organ showing its
structure in two remaining congeners, I. valentinus (Dufour, 1820) and I. ignoratus
Guadanucci & Wendt, 2014, are also provided. The following synonymy
is established: Mygale valentina Dufour, 1820 = Leptopelma cavicola Simon,
1889, n. syn. The taxonomic position of species, previously included in Leptopelma
Ausserer, 1871, is briefly discussed.
A new species of theraphosid spider from
Chile is described: Homoeomma bicolor sp. nov.
A new species of Proshapalopus Mello-Leit~ao, 1923, distributed in the Southwest
Colombia in the Choco Region, is described. A morphological cladistic analysis
based on the previous matrix of a Theraphosinae group confirmed the inclusion of
this species within Proshapalopus. The new species, Proshapalopus marimbai n.
sp., can be distinguished from other species of the genus mainly by the reduced
number of labial cuspules, around 40; in contrast the other species having over 100.
Males can be distinguished by the thickened femur III, presence of intermediate urticating
setae type I-III only, palpal bulb with a considerably long prolateral inferior
keel (from ventral median depression to embolus apex) and the accessory keel pronounced
distally. Females can be distinguished for lacking urticating setae type III
and the non-incrassated tibia IV. This discovery constitutes the fourth species
described for Proshapalopus and the first record for Colombia, expanding the geographical
distribution of the genus, until now known for Brazil only. Other aspects
of distribution and the phylogenetic relationship of the new species are also discussed
Two new species of Homoeomma Ausserer, 1871 from south-central Chile are
described, diagnosed and illustrated based on males and females. Males of Homoeomma
chilensis spec. nov. and H. orellanai spec. nov. differ from other species of the
genus by the palpal bulb morphology. Females differ by the shape of spermathecae.
Specimens were captured in regions of O’Higgins, Maule and Biobío, Chile. These
are the first species of the genus recorded in the biogeographic province of Santiago,
west of the Andes. This is a novel finding, given that until now, known species
of Homoeomma are only present east of the Andes.
Based on molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses a new genus of Theraphosidae is described, Pseudoclamoris gen. n. Tapinauchenius gigas and Tapinauchenius elenae are transferred to Pseudoclamoris and a new species of Pseudoclamoris from the Amazon Region is described: P. burgessi sp. n. Two new species of Tapinauchenius from the Caribbean are described: T. rasti sp. n. and T. polybotes sp. n. Tapinauchenius subcaeruleus is considered a nomen dubium. Psalmopoeinae subfamily is diagnosed based on molecular and morphological phylogenies, and Pseudoclamoris gen. n. and Ephebopus Simon, 1892 are included. A taxonomic key for Psalmopoeinae genera Tapinauchenius, Pseudoclamoris, Psalmopoeus, and Ephebopus is provided.
Umbyquyra gen. nov., a new Theraphosinae genus with stridulatory bristles on the palpal trocanther of pedipalp trochanter and first leg, is proposed. The genus differs from the other genera with stridulatory bristles on the same segments, Acanthoscurria Ausserer, 1871, Cyrtopholis Simon, 1892, Longilyra Gabriel, 2014 and Nesipelma Schmidt & Kovarik, 1996, by having a palpal bulb with a very short and acuminate embolus and four short keels; separated tibial apophysis; and female spermathecae resembling those of Cyrtopholis, with two seminal receptacles with elongated ducts emerging from a common area. Cyrtopholis palmarum Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945 and C. schmidti Rudloff, 1996 from Brazil and Acanthoscurria acuminata Schmidt & Tesmoingt in Schmidt, 2005 from Bolivia are transferred to the new genus. The female of Umbyquyra palmarum (Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945) gen. et comb. nov. and the male of U. schmidti (Rudloff, 1996) gen. et comb. nov. are described for the first time. Cyrtopholis zorodes Mello-Leitão, 1923 is considered a junior synonym of Acanthoscurria gomesiana Mello-Leitão, 1923 and Cyrtopholis meridionalis (Keyserling, 1891) is considered a nomen dubium. Eight new species from Brazil are described: Umbyquyra paranaiba gen. et sp. nov., U. cuiaba gen. et sp. nov., U. araguaia gen. et sp. nov., U. sapezal gen. et sp. nov., U. belterra gen. et sp. nov., U. caxiuana gen. et sp. nov., U. tucurui gen. et sp. nov. and U. tapajos gen. et sp. nov. Data and maps on the geographic distribution are provided.
New specimens of the genus Hapalotremus (Theraphosinae) are revised based on the examination of types and additional material collected in Argentina, Bolivia and Peru. A new generic diagnosis is proposed. New information and illustrations are provided for known species and seven new species were recognized and are newly described and illustrated. Hence, Hapalotremus comprises 10 valid species, distributed along the Andes and Yungas in western South America. All species are keyed and mapped. New taxonomic features are included in the descriptions and the detail of embolus keels morphology and positions are described for the first time for the genus. Information on species habitat is included. The highest altitude record for a Theraphosidae spider, living at 4524 m above sea level, is reported.
The female sex of Ami bladesi Pérez-Miles et al., 2008 is
described, based on three specimens from northeastern Costa
Rica and one specimen from the type locality in Panama. It is
the first record of this species and genus from Costa Rica. In
addition to the modified urticating hairs of type I, urticating
hairs of type III were found in both females and males from
Costa Rica and Panama. Notes on the distribution, ecology, and
behaviour of A. bladesi are included.
The holotype male of Psalmopoeus pulcher Petrunkevitch, 1925 is re-described and the female is described for the first time. Colour ontogeny, intraspecific morphological variation and sexual dimorphism are discussed and its biogeographical distribution mapped.
The suborder Mygalomorphae is generally poorly represented in the cave faunas of the world. The genus Hemirrhagus is endemic to Mexico and has 22 described species. It is the only one with epigean, troglophile and troglobitic species. Lack of urticating setae, loss of eye pigmentation and ocular reduction are interpreted as evolutionary reversals related to their troglobitic habits. From five troglobitic species in the genus, only the male of Hemirrhagus stygius is known. Five new troglobitic species are described with both sexes: Hemirrhagus akheronteus sp. nov., Hemirrhagus billsteelei sp. nov., Hemirrhaugus diablo sp. nov., Hemirrhagus kalebi sp. nov. and Hemirrhagus sprousei sp. nov. The female of Hemirrhagus chilango is described for the first time. Hemirrhagus akheronteus sp. nov. has a group of spinose setae on the opisthosoma; this setal modification was never reported in any other theraphosid spiders. Females of Hemirrhagus kalebi sp. nov. and Hemirrhagus sprousei sp. nov. lay fixed hammock egg sacs, which is an unusual behavior among species in Theraphosinae. Two stridulating setae previously reported only in epigean species are present on some of the new troglobites.
As the species Haploclastus devamatha Prasanth & Jose, 2014 is indistinguishable from Thrigmopoeus psychedelicus Sanap & Mirza, 2014, the latter is herein considered junior synonym of the former. Occurrence of polychromatism in H. devamatha is noted, and two distinct colour morphs of the species are recognised, a pink form and a blue form. The natural history and conservation of the species are discussed and its known distribution is updated.
Guyruita Guadanucci et al., 2007 is an ischnocoline genus with three described species from Brazil and Venezuela. Two new Brazilian species from the states of Rio Grande do Norte (Guyruita isae n. sp.) and Espírito Santo (Guyruita giupponii n. sp.) are described. A key is provided for identification of Guyruita species. Map with records and information on species habitat are also given.
Two new species of Dolichothele Mello-Leitão, 1923 are described from Brazil and Bolivia, D. mottai sp. n. from Distrito Federal and the state of Goiás, Brazil, and D. camargorum sp. n. from the state of Rondônia, Brazil, and the La Paz region, Bolivia. Males of the two new species resemble Dolichothele bolivianum (Vol, 2001) in having a small subapical keel on the distal embolus and females in particular by the short spermatheca. Dolichothele bolivianum is redescribed, and its geographical distribution is herein restricted to Bolivia and the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil.
The male of Bistriopelma matuskai Kaderka 2015 is described and illustrated, the species is rediagnosed and
complemented by new biogeographical data. Additionally, a new species of Bistriopelma, B. titicaca sp. nov.,
from the Puno region in Peru is described, diagnosed and illustrated. An updated general description and
distribution map of Bistriopelma are provided.
Mygalomorph spiders are rarely found in caves and most of the records appear as accidental
or restricted to small populations. The present study took place in iron formations
in Carajás region, southeastern Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon rainforest.
Each cave was sampled twice: dry season (from May to October) and wet season (from
November to April). Of the 242 caves sampled, we found mygalomorphs in 98 (40%).
The survey yielded 254 specimens, 223 (87.8%) juveniles. Of the 14 species recorded,
nine were represented by adults: Dolichothele tucuruiense (Guadanucci, 2007), Hapalopus
aymara Perdomo, Panzera & Pérez-Miles, 2009, Acanthoscurria geniculata (CL
Koch, 1841), Theraphosa blondi (Latreille, 1804), Nhandu coloratovillosus (Schmidt,
1998), Fufius minusculus Ortega, Nagahama, Motta & Bertani, 2013, and three new
are species described here: Guyruita metallophila n. sp., Hapalopus serrapelada n. sp.,
and Idiops carajas n. sp. Five other “morphospecies” were represented by juveniles
only: Ummidia sp. (Ctenizidae), Paratropis sp. (Paratropididae), Bolostromus sp. (Cyrtaucheniidae),
Diplura sp. (Dipluridae), and Idiophtalma sp. (Barychelidae). The high
number of juveniles suggests two alternatives: some species could be using the hypogean
environment as reproductive shelter; the hypogean environment is used as a refuge
by immatures. Two species appear to be troglophiles: G. metallophila and H. aymara.
A new record of the tarantula genus Phlogiellus Pocock, 1897 from Thailand is described. Distributional
data, natural history, morphological characters, and illustrations of male and female are provided. The
Thai specimens belong to a new species, Phlogiellus longipalpus sp. n. The diagnosis of the new species and
related species are discussed.
The genus Holothele Karsch, 1879 has a confusing taxonomic history, mainly due to a imprecise and
outdated generic diagnosis, perpetuated since its original description. In this work, we propose a new
diagnosis for the genus, redescribe the type species Holothele recta Karsch, 1879 and propose a few
taxonomic changes. Holothele longipes is here considered as a senior synonym of Holothele recta Karsch,
1879, Stichoplastus sanguiniceps F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1898, Dryptopelmides rondoni Lucas & Bücherl,
1972, Dryptopelmides ludwigi Strand, 1907. We also provide updated geographic distribution records
for Holothele longipes and propose the revalidation of Scopelobates Simon, 1903.
Systematics has been formally implemented for about 250 years. In the last decades it has suffered great intellectual change, with the embrace of phylogenetic theory and the availability of molecular information. Here we conduct a systematic revision of Bonnetina, a group of tarantulas endemic to Mexico. Species delimitation is mainly conducted from the integration of morphological and molecular information. The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) marker is used as molecular barcode, and two formal molecular delimitation methods are employed: Hard-Gap barcoding and Poisson Tree Process. In a few cases, we used geographic distribution modelling for predicting the potential distribution of species. We also make a deeper than usual integration of the molecular information in the taxonomy of the group, by providing combined morphological and molecular diagnoses of the species. From our data, we provide a new diagnosis of Bonnetina and recognize the existence of 17 solidly supported species in the genus, 10 of which are newly described. We provide a COI reference alignment to ease future molecular identifications of Bonnetina species. Our work highlights the importance of using several sources of evidence to the species delimitation problem, because any single view is prone to give biased results.
A new species Sahydroaraneus sebastiani sp.nov. is recorded from the Western Ghats of Kerala. It resembles S. collinus Pocock 1899 but can be separated from S. collinus Pocock 1899 in having spermathecal stalks with uniform diameter ending in a single lobe, while in S. collinus Pocock 1899 spermathecal stalks are wider at the bottom, tapering at upper end and posses a bud like single lobe.
Mexican red-kneed tarantulas of the genus Brachypelma are regarded as some of the most desirable invertebrate pets, and although bred in captivity, they continue to be smuggled out of the wild in large numbers. Species are often difficult to identify based solely on morphology, therefore prompt and accurate identification is required for adequate protection. Thus,weexplored the applicability of using COI-basedDNAbarcoding as a complementary identification tool. Brachypelma smithi (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897) and Brachypelma hamorii Tesmongt, Cleton & Verdez, 1997 are redescribed, and their morphological differences defined. Brachypelma annitha is proposed as a new synonym of B. smithi. The current distribution of red-kneed tarantulas shows that the Balsas River basin may act as a geographical barrier. Morphological and molecular evidence are concordant and together provide robust hypotheses for delimitingMexican red-kneed tarantula species. DNA barcoding of these tarantulas is further shown to be useful for species-level identification and for potentially preventing black market trade in these spiders. As a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) listing does not protect habitat, or control wildlifemanagement or human interactionswith organisms, it is important to support environmental conservation activities to provide an alternative income for local communities and to avoid damage to wildlife populations.