Description and Sexual Behavior of Two New Species of Mygalomorph Spiders (Araneae: Theraphosidae, Pycnothelidae), and First Record of Xenonemesia platensis (Pycnothelidae) of Corrientes, Argentina

Zoological Studies 61(62): 1-18
Paraje Tres Cerros is a low altitude hilly natural area surrounded by cattle fields and characterized by three isolated rocky formations of about 150–180 m a.s.l. located in the Corrientes province of Argentina. Their topographic and environmental conditions are unique across the whole Mesopotamian littoral of Argentina and, therefore, can be considered as a biogeographic island that hosts several endemic species of plants and animals. The lack of knowledge of the mygalomorph spider species of the area led us to conduct a field study at Paraje Tres Cerros with the objective of surveying these spiders. From this survey, we described two new endemic species, Stenoterommata isa sp. nov. (Pycnothelidae) and Catumiri sapucai sp. nov. (Theraphosidae); and we recorded Xenonemesia platensis for the first time in the Corrientes province. In addition, we described the sexual behavior of Stenoterommata isa sp. nov. and Catumiri sapucai sp. nov. for the first time. We presented distribution maps for the Argentinean species of Stenoterommata, for the genus Catumiri as well as for Xenonemesia platensis. Stenoterommata isa sp. nov. constitutes the eighth known species of the genus in Argentina and according to its distribution is the only exclusive species recorded in the Corrientes province. Regarding its sexual behavior, we obtained one mating, which consisted in touches the female legs with legs I and II by the male, who starts the courtship by beating the female’s cephalothorax and sternum with legs II and palps respectively. Then the male clasps with the first pair of legs between the palp base and chelicerae of the female and elevate her to reach the genital opening for the palpal insertions. Catumiri sapucai sp. nov. is the third species described from Argentina with a new spermathecae shape with two additional elongated digitiform domes external to the inner receptacles. We obtained five matings for this species, two of which involved males contacting females without an evident courtship. For the remaining three, the males initiated courtship by performing a few quick body vibrations. All males achieved the typical copulation position observed in most mygalomorphs and made about 3 to 5 palpal insertions, with the exception of one case in which spiders lost equilibrium and separated from each other. The presence of Xenonemesia platensis at this area is based on one adult female, thus further campaigns to collect more specimens will lead us to confirm this record or to better elucidate its taxonomic identity.

A new species of Chilobrachys (Araneae, Theraphosidae) from Guangdong, China

Biodiversity Data Journal 10(e96467)
Background The theraphosid spider genus Chilobrachys Karsch, 1892 contains 30 species, almost entirely limited to Indochina, India, Sri Lanka and China. Six species of Chilobrachys are currently known from China: C. dominus Lin & Li, 2022 (Yunnan), C. guangxiensis (Yin & Tan, 2000) (Guangxi, Hainan), C. hubei Song & Zhao, 1988 (Hubei, Chongqing), C. jinchengi Lin & Li, 2022 (Tibet), C. liboensis Zhu & Zhang, 2008 (Guizhou, Guangxi) and C. lubricus Yu et al., 2021 (Yunnan). New information A new species, Chilobrachys qishuoi Lin & Li, sp. n., is described from Guangdong, China, on the basis of both sexes. This is the easternmost Chilobrachys species known. Photos and a morphological description of the new species are provided. Type materials are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IZCAS) in Beijing, China.

On the species of Pamphobeteus Pocock, 1901 deposited in the Natural History Museum, London, with redescriptions of type material, the first record of P. grandis Bertani, Fukushima & Silva, 2008 from Peru, and the description of four new species

Arachnology 19(3): 650-674
The species Pamphobeteus antinous Pocock, 1903, P. fortis (Ausserer, 1875), P. insignis Pocock, 1903, and P. ornatus Pocock, 1903 are redescribed, based on examination of the respective type material. Lectotypes are designated for Pamphobeteus ferox (Ausserer, 1875) and P. nigricolor (Ausserer, 1875), with these taxa also redescribed. A new diagnosis and description of Pamphobeteus augusti (Simon, 1889) is presented, based on a non-type male compared against illustrations of one of the syntypes. New distribution records of Pamphobeteus grandis Bertani, Fukushima & Silva, 2008 are presented from Peru. Four new species of Pamphobeteus Pocock, 1901 are described: P. nellieblyae sp. nov., P. urvinae sp. nov. and P. zaruma sp. nov. from Ecuador, and P. lapola sp. nov. from Colombia.

Systematics and phylogeography of western Mediterranean tarantulas (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 196(2): 845-884
Theraphosidae is the most diversified family of mygalomorph spiders, commonly known as tarantulas. Two genera inhabit the Mediterranean region: Chaetopelma in the east and Ischnocolus mostly in the western part of the Basin. Their phylogenetic position and the validity of some Ischnocolus species remain unclear. We implemented a multilocus target approach to shed new light on the position of both genera and further integrated molecular data with additional lines of evidence (morphology and ecology) to explore species boundaries in western Mediterranean Ischnocolus. Our results reveal that Ischnocolus and Chaetopelma are not closely related. Chaetopelma formed a clade with the African subfamily Eumenophorinae and Ischnocolus was recovered in a clade comprising all remaining theraphosids. The western Mediterranean Ischnocolus comprises two deeply divergent clades that separated during the Early Miocene and differ in both morphology and lifestyle. We found molecular, morphological and ecological evidence to restore the name Ischnocolus mogadorensis and revalidate this species. We also uncovered distinct allopatric lineages in Ischnocolus elongatus. However, the lack of males, the uniform morphology of females and low withinclade support hampered the assessment of their status and boundaries. Finally, our data support that I. elongatus should be considered a senior synonym of Ischnocolus hancocki and Harpactirella insidiosa.

A new species of tarantula of the genus Orphnaecus Simon, 1892 (Araneae: Theraphosidae) from the Province of Dinagat Islands, Philippines

Biodiversitas 23(8): 4283-4288
Salamanes JJDP, Santos JMJ, Austria ES, Villancio GGS. 2022. Short Communication: A new species of tarantula of the genus Orphnaecus Simon, 1892 (Araneae: Theraphosidae) from the Province of Dinagat Islands, Philippines. Biodiversitas 23: 4283-4288. Orphnaecus adamsoni sp. nov., a new species of tarantula of the genus Orphnaecus Simon, 1892 is described and illustrated based on the specimens collected from the Province of Dinagat Islands, Philippines. It closely resembles O. kwebaburdeos (Barrion-Dupo, Barrion & Rasalan, 2015). However, it can be easily distinguished by having a rounded carapace, shorter leg segments, more clavate-paddle shaped maxillary lyra, and a different habitat. This mygalomorph spider discovery constitutes the fifth species described for Orphnaecus and the fourth record in the Philippines.

First record of Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892 (Araneae, Theraphosidae) in Peru: a new species and its phylogenetic placement

Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 94(4, e20200702): 1-17
The tarantula genus Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892 includes 20 valid species distributed in Argentina and Brazil. These spiders are distinguished from other Theraphosinae genera by the presence of an incrassate femur III, more evident in males, urticating hair types III and IV on the abdominal dorsum, few cuspules on the labium (0 to 30), maxillae with a maximum of 200 cuspules and sternum rounded. From recent examination of material from Peru, we discovered specimens that share all the morphological characters of Tmesiphantes, but did not fi t with any known species. In the present study T. intiyaykuy sp. nov. is diagnosed, described, and illustrated. This new species resembles T. caymmii in the circular patch with stiff setae on midventral abdomen but can be distinguished by the shape of the palpal bulb and spermathecae. Also, we performed a phylogenetic analysis using morphological characters to infer the taxonomic placement of the new species. The analysis included 26 terminal species and 36 characters. Representatives of Tmesiphantes formed a monophyletic group and T. intiyaykuy sp. nov. is close related with T. caymmii. A dichotomous identifi cation key and a geographic distribution map were constructed for recognized species of Tmesiphantes.

Taxonomy, biogeography, and ecology of some theraphosid spiders of the Darién region with description of five new species (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 40: 5-18
A summary of the present knowledge on the biogeography and ecology of the known theraphosid spiders in the Darién region, Panama is presented. Hapalopus coloratus (Valerio, 1982) is redescribed, Holothele longipes (L. Koch, 1875), Neischnocolus panamanus (Petrunkevitch, 1925) and Psalmopoeus pulcher Pretunkevitch, 1925 are briefly discussed. Five new species of theraphosid spider are described from the Darién region: Cyclosternum darienensis sp. nov., Euthycaelus quinteroi sp. nov., Pamphobeteus sucreorum sp. nov., Spinosatibiapalpus cambrai sp. nov. and Tapinauchenius herrerai sp. nov. The supposed distribution of the taxa Pamphobeteus ornatus Pocock, 1903 and Xenesthis immanis (Ausserer, 1875) in Panama are rejected. The synonymy of Xenesthis colombiana Simon, 1891 with X. immanis is rejected based on incompatible leg morphometrics and no textual justification thereby restoring X. colombiana comb. rest.

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