Vision is a remarkable sensory adaptation; however, natural selection may not favor maintenance of eye function in habitats where eyesight does not contribute to fitness. Vision loss is relatively common in cave-dwelling spiders in the temperate zone, but appears rarer in tropical caves. To date, blind spiders in the (sub)tropical Caribbean have only been described from Cuba and Jamaica, including four pholcids, a barychelid, a ctenid, and a prodidomid with reduced eyes. In our survey of over 40 caves in the Greater Antilles, mainly Puerto Rico, Isla Mona, Cuba, and Dominican Republic, we have not previously found any eyeless spiders. Here we summarize information on blind Caribbean spiders, and describe two newly discovered species representing two families, from a single cave, Cueva Seibo, in the Dominican Republic. These are the eyeless Ciba seibo n. gen., n. sp. (Ctenidae) and the vestigial-eyed Trichopelma maddeni n. sp.
(Barychelidae). Cueva Seibo appears to be an energy-poor system with a relatively small bat population and is physiologically unique amongst caves we surveyed. We postulate that troglobiomorphism in the Caribbean may result from individual cave environments and hypothesize convergent eye loss within this cave, as most members of both families,
including epigean species from the Dominican Republic, have normal eyes. However, another blind species, Ciba calzada (Alayo´n 1985) n. comb., occurs in a cave in Cuba and it remains to be tested if eye loss occurred in these two convergently, or if their shared lack of eyes is homologous.
We propose the name Bumba
as a new name for Maraca, preoccupied by Maraca
Hebard, 1926 (Orthoptera). We describe and illustrate Bumba lennoni
, a new theraphosid species from Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil. This species differs from the other species of the genus in the extremely reduced keel on male palpal organ and in the higher number of labial and maxillary cuspules. Females additionally differ in the spermathecal morphology. As a consequence of the name replacement, three new combinations are established.
A new species of Hapalotremus Simon, 1903 from northern Argentina is described and illustrated. Hapalotremus martinorum sp. nov. differs from all other congeners by the colour pattern of live specimens. Males differ in the male palpal bulb morphology, with thickened and less curved embolus having a blunt subapical keel and less-developed apical keel. Females differ in the shape of the spermathecae, with the lateral bases more pronounced than the superiors and the upper edge more rounded. Specimens were captured inhabiting short burrows or crevices under stones in high cloud forests. Hapalotremus cyclothorax (Mello-Leitão 1923) is a junior synonym of Homoeomma montanum (Mello-Leitão, 1923), Hapalotremus scintillans (Mello-Leitão 1929) is a junior synonym of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901, Hapalotremus exilis (Mello-Leitão 1923) and Hapalotremus muticus (Mello-Leitão 1923) are considered species inquirenda.
A new species of tarantula, Psalmopoeus victori sp. nov. (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) is described from Veracruz, Mexico. It is the first arboreal species described in Mexico and represents the most northerly known distribution for the genus Psalmopoeus. A detailed description of the lyra is presented.
The information about mygalomorph spiders (Dipluridae y Theraphosidae) of Estado de Mexico is presented, new locations are cited, three species are cited for the first time, four new species of the Theraphosidae family are described, and data on the genus Davus O.
Pickard-Cambridge, 1892 are provided as well as most significance taxonomic characteristics are illustrated.
A new species of Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892, T. aridai sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on three males and three females collected at the Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, Santarém, state of Pará, Brazil. Males can be distinguished from T. perp Guadanucci & Silva, 2012 by the palpal bulb with an inconspicous tegular basal projection, but presenting a very slender embolus with shorter keels not extending to the tip, and from T. nubilus Simon, 1892 by the tibial apophysis with two similarly sized branches, the prolateral one with a strong spine on the retrolateral margin. Females resemble T. nubilus by the aspect of the seminal receptacle but the constriction near the apex is less evident and apex shape is irregular. The new species represents the first record of Tmesiphantes from the Amazonian region, bringing the total number of species to eight.
A distinctive new species of ground burrowing tarantula from Western Ghats endemic genus Thrigmopoeus is described from Kerala State, India. Thrigmopoeus psychedelicus sp. nov. differs from putative species of the genus in the adults being black overall with a metallic blue lustre on the carapace and abdomen. Females of Thrigmopoeus psychedelicus sp. nov. exhibit polychromatism. Juveniles and sub-adults are paler with vibrant maroon colouration on its abdomen whereas adult females are much darker and lack vibrant colouration as sub-adults.
A new species of Chaetopelma Ausserer, 1871 is described from Hatay province, Turkey. Differences between the new species and related species are discussed. The characteristic features of this species are described and illustrated.
The genus Euthycaelus Simon 1889 is diagnosed based on the examination of type-material and additional material from Venezuela and Colombia. The genus now includes: Euthycaelus colonicus Simon 1889, E. norae sp. nov., E. amandae sp. nov.; Euthycaelus steini Simon 1889 is transferred to Psalistops comb. nov. The genus Schismatothele Karsch 1879 is considered a senior synonym of Hemiercus Simon 1903. Schismatothele includes S. lineata Karsch 1879, S. inflata (Simon 1889) comb. nov., S. modesta (Simon 1889) comb. nov, and S. benedettii Panzera et al. 2011. Hemiercus proximus Mello-Leitão 1923, from Cubatão, São Paulo, Brazil, is transferred to Acanthoscurria proxima (Mello-Leitão 1923) comb. nov. Hemiercus kastoni Caporiacco 1955 is considered a species inquirenda pending the examination of the type material.
A new species namely Haploclastus devamatha (Theraphosidae) is described from Western Ghats of Kerala, India. Detailed morphological characters and illustrations of body and copulatory organs of the species are presented.
The genus Ischnocolus is redefined based on type material, and extra specimens. Representatives of the genus are distinguished by clavate tarsal trichobothria arranged in median apical row; by the maxillae with lighter colour on prolateral edge. Males of the genus Ischnocolus Ausserer are recognized by the cheliceral intumescence, sigmoid ventral furrow on palpal tibia, unequal cymbium lobes, tibial apophysis absent, great number of spines on ventral side of tibia I, and male superior tarsal claws bipectinate. Species included are: Ischnocolus valentinus (Dufour) [= I. holosericeus L. Koch, I. triangulifer Ausserer, I. algericus Thorell, I. fuscostriatus Simon, I. maroccanus (Simon), I. mogadorensis (Simon), I. numidus Simon, I. tripolitanus Caporiacco, Avicularia andalusiaca Simon], Ischnocolus hancocki Smith, Ischnocolus jickelii L. Koch (senior-synonym of Chaetopelma adenense Simon) and Ischnocolus ignoratus sp. nov. Ischnocolus tomentosus Thorell is considered incertae sedis. The following species are considered species inquirenda: I. tunetanus Pavesi and I. fasciculatus Strand.
Based on a phylogenetic analysis we revised the Chilean tarantula genera Euathlus and Paraphysa. As results of our analyses, within a wider context of South American lineages, Paraphysa is synonymous of Euathlus, and Phrixotrichus is resurrected. Euathlus and Phrixotrichus are sister genera, supported by their shared palpal organ morphology, especially at the ventral position of the distal prolateral inferior keel, also by spermathecal receptacles with a lateral chamber, and tarsal claws without teeth. Both genera are redefined based on cladistic results, and some of their constituent species are transferred. We describe four new species, and for the first time present the spermathecae of Euathlus parvulus comb. nov. All species described for both genera are diagnosed and keyed. Euathlus now includes: Euathlus antai Perafán and Pérez-Miles sp. nov., Euathlus atacama Perafán and Pérez-Miles sp. nov., Euathlus condorito Perafán and Pérez-Miles sp. nov., Euathlus manicata (Simon 1892) comb. nov., Euathlus parvulus (Pocock, 1903) comb. nov. and Euathlus truculentus L. Koch, 1875. Phrixotrichus now comprises: Phrixotrichus jara Perafán and Pérez-Miles sp. nov., Phrixotrichus scrofa (Molina, 1788) comb. nov. and Phrixotrichus vulpinus (Karsch, 1880) comb. nov. Furthermore, Paraphysa riparia Schmidt and Bolle, 2008 is synonymized with Eupalaestrus weijenberghi (Thorell, 1894), Paraphysa pulcherrimaklaasi Schmidt, 1991 is transferred to Maraca Pérez-Miles, 2006 and Paraphysa peruviana Schmidt, 2007 is considered a nomen dubium.
A new species of arboreal tarantula of the genus
Poecilotheria is described from Central India, The
new species Poecilotheria chaojii sp. nov. is most
similar to P. tigrinawesseli and P. formosa.
However, it can be distinguished from P. formosa
by possessing a band on the venter of leg IV
(absent in P. formosa) and from P. tigrinawesseli
in bearing bright white and black alternating
bands on venter of leg IV (cryptic coloured and
black alternating bands in P. tigrinawesseli),
basal 1/4 of metatarsi covered with white hair
(basal 1/3 of metatarsi covered with a black band
in P. tigrinawesseli), three thorn-like tubercles on
the prolateral face of the maxilla (two thorn-like
tubercles in P. tigrinawesseli).
The theraphosine genus Hemirrhagus Simon 1903 is revised based on the examination of the type specimens and additional material collected in Mexico. Eight species were redescribed and illustrated. The males of Hemirrhagus ocellatus, Hemirrhagus papalotl, and Hemirrhagus stygius, formerly unknown, are described for the first time. Five new species were recognized and are newly described and illustrated. Hence, Hemirrhagus comprises 21 valid species, all endemic to Mexico. All species are keyed and mapped. New taxonomic features are included in the descriptions and different types of stridulatory organs are described for the first time for the genus. It is reported for the first time that Hemirrhagus is the only known Theraphosinae that lays fixed egg-sacs. Hemirrhagus embolulatus sp. nov. is described as the only known Hemirrhagus that possesses embolus keels present in other Theraphosinae genera. Information on species habitat and reproduction are included. © 2014 The Linnean Society of London
Three new species of the monotypic genus Melloleitaoina Gerschman & Schiapelli, 1960 are described from northern Argentina: M. mutquina sp. n., M. uru sp. n. and M. yupanqui sp. n. The female specimen originally described as M. crassifemur is not conspecific with the male holotype and thus is removed
from this species and described as M. uru sp. n.; M. crassifemur is redescribed. All species are diagnosed, illustrated and a key to species is provided.
The theraphosid spider genera Heterophrictus Pocock, 1900 and Neoheterophrictus Siliwal & Raven, 2012 are rediagnosed in this paper and a new genus, Sahydroaraneus gen. nov. is described from Southern Western Ghats. Four new species (two each of Heterophrictus and Neoheterophrictus) and one of Sahydroaraneus gen. nov. are described from the Western Ghats. Plesiophrictus mahabaleshwari Tikader, 1977 is removed from the synonymy of Heterophrictus milleti Pocock, 1900 and is treated as a junior synonym of Heterophrictus blatteri (Gravely, 1935). Plesiophrictus bhori Gravely, 1915 is transferred to the genus Neoheterophrictus, Neoheterophrictus bhori (Gravely, 1915) new combination. The genus, Sahydroaraneus gen. nov., resembles tarantula belonging to the genus, Neoheterophrictus but differs with respect to structure of tibial apophysis and spermathecae. Detailed ultra-structure of setae type of the Indian Eumenophorinae is presented for the first time along with notes on their biogeography. Common elements among Africa, Madagascar and India like the Eumenophorinae and several other mygalomorph spiders advocate mygalomorphae as an important group for evolutionary investigation due to their inability for long distance dispersal rendering the members restrictive in distribution.
In this study the Brazilian Amazonian species of Acanthoscurria Ausserer, 1871 are redescribed: A. geniculata (C.L. Koch, 1841), A. tarda Pocock, 1903, A. juruenicola Mello-Leitão, 1923, A. theraphosoides (Doleschall, 1871). Acanthoscurria simoensi Vol, 2000 and A. insubtilis Simon, 1892, previously known from French Guyana and Bolivia, respectively, are recorded for Brazil by the first time. The females of these two species are described for the first time and a new species, A. belterrensis sp. nov., is described from Belterra, Pará, Brazil. In addition, four synonymies are established: A. transamazonica Piza, 1972 as junior synonym of A. geniculata; A. ferina Simon, 1892 and A. brocklehursti F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1896 of A. theraphosoides; and A. xinguensis Timotheo da Costa, 1960 of A. juruenicola. Acanthoscurria belterrensis sp. nov. resembles A. gomesiana Mello-Leitão, 1923 by the color pattern and structure of sexual organs. The male can be distinguished by the less curved embolus and the very projected prolateral superior and prolateral inferior keels, giving a triangular aspect to the basis of embolus, and the female seminal receptacles presenting a larger and narrower basis.
A new species of Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892, is described from sandstone/quartizitic caves of Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil. This is the fifth species of the genus and the first record of a troglobitic mygalomorph in Brazil. A key is presented for all Tmesiphantes species.
Munduruku gen. nov. is proposed for the type species Munduruku bicoloratum sp. nov., from Juruti and Santarém, Pará, Brazil. The main diagnostic character of Munduruku gen. nov. is the presence of a subapical, lanceolate keel on the male palpal bulb, which is unique among the basal taxa of Theraphosinae with type III-IV urticating setae. The female spermathecae consist of two spheroid receptacles with funnel-shaped necks, each of which bears a sclerotized area. In both sexes, the abdomen is remarkably patterned, an uncommon feature in adults of New World theraphosids. Both the bulbus lanceolate keel and the abdominal color pattern are hypothesized as synapomorphies of the genus.
Grammostola diminuta sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae) is described from northwestern Argentina; Grammostola vachoni Schiapelli and Gerschman 1961 is considered a senior synonym of Grammostola fossor syn. nov. Schmidt 2001 on the basis of material examined from the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” (MACN-Ar). The geographic distribution of G. vachoni is extended on the basis of new records. Additionally, we present new diagnoses and new distributional data for Grammostola chalcothrix Chamberlin 1917, Grammostola inermis Mello-Leitão, 1941 and Grammostola pulchripes (Simon 1891).
A new species of the genus Citharacanthus Pocock, 1901 from Chiapas, Mexico is described and distinguishes from the congeners by the shape of spermathecae.
A remarkable new species of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Avicularia rickwesti sp. nov., is described from Dominican Republic. Female specimens of the new species are unusual by having two very short and broad spermathecae with distal half strongly sclerotized, a feature not found in any other aviculariine. Additionally, it has the leg coxae with
spiniform setae, smaller on leg I and prolateral leg II, larger, black on retrolateral leg II, prolateral and retrolateral leg III and prolateral leg IV. Males are unknown. The new species is known only from two localities, in southwestern Dominican Republic. This is the first record for the subfamily on Hispañola which is close to the northern boundary for the Aviculariinae distribution.
A new species is described in the tarantula genus Lyrognathus Pocock 1895, being the first record of this taxon from Sumatra, Indonesia. Lyrognathus giannisposatoi sp. nov. is also unique in its habitat selection, being the first confirmed lowland species from this genus. A new key to Lyrognathus species is provided, and a biogeography of the group is briefly discussed.
Two new species of Plesiopelma Pocock, 1901 from northern Argentina are described and diagnosed based on males and habitat descriptions are presented. Males of Plesiopelma paganoi sp. nov. differ from most of species by the absence of spiniform setae on the retrolateral face of cymbium, aspect of the palpal bulb. Plesiopelma aspidosperma sp. nov. differs from most species of the genus by the presence of spiniform setae on the retrolateral face of cymbium and it can be distinguished from P. myodes Pocock, 1901, P. longisternale (Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1942) and P. rectimanum (Mello-Leitão, 1923) by the separated palpal bulb keels and basal nodule of metatarsus I very developed. It differs from P. minense (Mello-Leitão, 1943) by the shape of the palpal bulb and basal nodule on metatarsus I well developed. Specimens were captured in Salta province, Argentina, inhabiting high cloud forests of Yungas eco-region.
According to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, 1999),
the authors request the rejection of the specific epithets of Trichopelma cubanum (Banks,
1909) and Trichopelma maculatum (Franganillo, 1930) [Family Barychelidae] and
propose Trichopelma banksia comb. nov. and Trichopelma eucubanum comb. nov.
instead of them.
Two new species of the genus Tmesiphantes from Serra do Espinhaço, state of Minas Gerais are described. They comprise the first records of the genus outside the Atlantic Forest. Furthermore, the examination of all type material of the genera Tmesiphantes and Melloleitaoina, which have been suggested as sister groups, showed that the thickness of femur III, used to distinguish between them, shows a continuous variation, and the taxonomic usage of this character is discussed.
The selenocosmiine genus Psednocnemis gen. nov. is described from the Sundaland region of South-east Asia. The type species Psednocnemis davidgohi sp. nov., which the male was incorrectly identified as Coremiocnemis hoggi West & Nunn 2010, is herein described. Cladistic analyses of 46 morphological characters and 39 exemplar taxa from 12 genera
were done. The genera analysed were: Reichlingia Rudloff 2001; ingroup: Chilobrachys Karsch 1891; Coremiocnemis Simon 1892; Haplocosmia Schmidt & von Wirth 1996; Lyrognathus Pocock 1895; Orphnaecus Simon 1892; Phlogiellus Pocock 1897; Poecilotheria Simon 1885; Psednocnemis gen. nov.; Selenobrachys Schmidt 1999; Selenocosmia Ausserer
1871 (in part: Sundaland fauna only); Yamia Kishida 1920. The results presented Psednocnemis gen. nov. as monophyletic based on presence of a distal embolic spiral curl in males and presence of a distodorsal spiniform brush on the retrolateral
surfaces of coxa IV, as well as the reduction in density of hair type 4, located along the proximoventral abdomen of both sexes. Two new tribes are described: Chilobrachini trib. nov. and Phlogiellini trib. nov., based upon basal nodes with strongest
branch support that best reflected natural groups. Selenocosmiini Simon 1889 and Poecilotheriini Simon 1889 are revised and redescribed. Yamia Kishida 1920 is placed into junior synonymy of Phlogiellus (syn. nov.); Chilocosmia Schmidt & von Wirth 1992 and Selenobrachys Schmidt 1999 are placed into junior synonymy of Orphnaecus (syn. nov.); Selenocosmia xinping Zhu & Zhang 2008 is transferred to Phlogiellus, makng the new combination Phlogiellus xinping (Zhu & Zhang 2008) comb. nov.; Selenocosmia dichromata (Schmidt & von Wirth 1992) is transferred to Orphnaecus, making the new combination Orphnaecus dichromata (Schmit & von Wirth 1992) comb. nov.; Coremiocnemis brachyramosa West & Nunn 2010, Coremiocnemis gnathospina West & Nunn 2010, Coremiocnemis jeremyhuffi West & Nunn 2010 and Selenocosmia imbellis (Simon 1891) are transferred to Psednocnemis gen. et comb. nov. Poecilotherinae (Schmidt 1995) is no longer considered a valid subfamily and is replaced into Selenocosmiinae as the tribe Poecilotheriini.
Chilocosmia barensteinerae Schmidt et al. 2010 is considered a Selenocosmiinae species incertae sedis. Ischnocolella senffti Strand 1907 is considered a nomen dubium. All other genera examined were retrieved as monophyletic in the first
cladistic analyses exclusive to Selenocosmiinae genera (Australo-Papuan selenocosmiines are outside the scope of this work and are not considered). Biogeography of all Selenocosmiinae is discussed; the group is a potential model North
Gondwanan taxon. A key to Psednocnemis species is provided.
The subfamily Ischnocolinae of the family Theraphosidae is a generic complex and Raven (1985) considered all genera (including the only Indian genus Plesiophrictus Pocock, 1899) as incertae sedis. These genera require re-examination of the type specimens along with examination of new collections from the type locality to revalidate their taxonomic position under Ischnocolinae. Recently, Guadanucci (2011) revalidated the genus Heterophrictus Pocock, 1900 and removed it from the junior synonym of Plesiophrictus; he also provided distinct generic characters for Heterophrictus and Plesiophrictus, which are helpful in the revision of Indian Plesiophrictus. Though the taxonomic position of Heterophrictus is still confusing in the absence of cladistic analysis (R. Raven pers. comm. 7 February 2012), in this paper, we consider Heterophrictus a valid genus until further cladistic analysis (based on more specimens) is published.
Three aviculariine genera endemic to Brazil are revised. Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850 is resurrected, including five species; Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 includes two species; and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, six species. Nine species are newly described: Typhochlaena amma sp. n., T. costae sp. n., T. curumim sp. n., T. paschoali sp. n., Pachistopelma bromelicola sp. n., Iridopelma katiae sp. n., I. marcoi sp. n., I. oliveirai sp. n. and I. vanini sp. n. Three new synonymies are established: Avicularia pulchra Mello-Leitão, 1933 and Avicularia recifiensis Struchen & Brändle, 1996 are junior synonyms of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 syn. n., and Avicularia palmicola Mello-Leitão, 1945 is a junior synonym of Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 syn. n. Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947 is transferred to Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, making the new combination Tapinauchenius concolor (Caporiacco, 1947) comb. n. Lectotypes are newly designed for Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 , Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 and Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix comprising 62 characters and 38 terminal taxa. The chosen cladogram found with X-Pee-Wee and concavity 6 suggests they are monophyletic. All species are keyed and mapped and information on species habitat and area cladograms are presented. Discussion on biogeography and conservation is provided.
A new species of Eupalaestrus Pocock, 1901 from northern Argentina is described and illustrated. Males and females of Eupalaestrus larae
sp. nov. differ from those all other species of the genus by the color with distinct two parallel longitudinal stripes on the femora, patellae, tibiae and one longitudinal stripe reaching half of metatarsi; the presence of a thickened femur and tibia IV; a straight embolus of the male palpal bulb and retrolateral keel pronounced. Specimens were captured in Chaco province, inhabiting unflooded flat grasslands open areas inside forest in transitional Chaco eco-region.