Cladistic analysis and biogeography of the genus Oligoxystre Vellard 1924 (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae)

José Paulo Leite Guadanucci ,2011

The genus Oligoxystre was originally established in 1924 for O. auratum Vellard 1924 from southern state of Goia´s, Central Brazil. Today, the genus includes seven species: O. auratum, O. caatinga Guadanucci 2007, O. bolivianum (Vol 2001), O. tucuruiense Guadanucci 2007, O. rufoniger Guadanucci 2007, O. dominguense Guadanucci 2007, and O. diamantinensis Bertani et al. 2009. Oligoxystre mineirum new species, from the Atlantic forest domain is described here. The cladistic analysis resulted in a single tree: (O.caatinga (O.mineirum ((O.tucuruiense+O.rufoniger) (O.diamantinensis (O.bolivianum +O.dominguense))))). According to the area cladogram obtained, it is possible to draw the following conclusions: the origin of the Cerrado fauna is monophyletic; the occurrence of two sympatric species in Caatinga is due to different events; and the diversity of Oligoxystre in Serra do Espinhac¸o (O. rufoniger, O. diamantinensis and O. mineirum) is probably the result of the contact of the typical fauna of each bioma (Cerrado, Caatinga and Atlantic Forest).

Revalidation of Pterinopelma Pocock 1901 with description of a new species and the female of Pterinopelma vitiosum (Keyserling 1891) (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Rogério Bertani, Roberto Hiroaki Nagahama, Caroline Sayuri Fukushima ,2011

We revalidate the theraphosid genus Pterinopelma Pocock 1901, describe the female of P. vitiosum for first time and Pterinopelma sazimai sp. nov. from Brazil. These two species were included in a matrix with 35 characters and 32 taxa and were analyzed both with all characters having same weight and with implied weights. Searches considering all characters non-additive or some additive were also carried out. The preferred tree, obtained with implied weights, concavity 6 and all characters non-additive shows that Pterinopelma is a monophyletic genus sister to the clade Lasiodora (Vitalius + Nhandu). The presence of denticles on the prolateral inferior male palpal bulb keel is a synapomorphy of the genus.

Schismatothele benedettii, a new species of tarantula from amazonic Brazil (Araneae, Theraphosidae)

Alejandra Panzera, Cintya Perdomo, Fernando Pérez-Miles ,2011

We describe and figure a new species of the genus Schismatothele Karsch, 1879 from Brazil, Amazonas state,to the north of Manaus. This species comprises the firstmale known for the genus and the first report of the genus Schismatothele for Brazil. The new species differs from theonly known species, Schismatothele lineata Karsch, 1879 inthe morphology of the spermathecae in which the dorsalreceptacles have internal tubular digitiform lobules.

On the Avicularia (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Aviculariinae) species from Uruguay

Caroline Sayuri Fukushima, Fernando Pérez-Miles, Rogério Bertani ,2011

The taxonomic status of four species of Avicularia Lamarck 1818 described from Uruguay: Avicularia anthracina (C.L. Koch 1842), Avicularia alticeps (Keyserling 1878), Avicularia parva (Keyserling 1878) and Avicularia tigrina (Pocock 1903) is discussed. The holotypes and/or original descriptions of these species were examined, and two taxonomic synonymies are needed, which are presented herein. Avicularia anthracina is transferred to Grammostola, resulting in Grammostola anthracina (C.L. Koch 1842) new combination and is considered a senior synonym of Grammostola mollicoma Ausserer 1875 new synonymy. Likewise, Avicularia parva is transferred to Catumiri Guadanucci 2004, where it is placed in the synonymy of Catumiri uruguayense Guadanucci 2004 new synonymy. Avicularia tigrina and Avicularia alticeps, originally described in the genera Ischnocolus Ausserer 1875 and Pterinopelma Pocock 1901, respectively, are herein considered nomina dubia since their types are presumed lost.

Thrixopelma lagunas sp. n., eine bisher unbekannte Vogelspinnenart aus Peru (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Gunter Schmidt, Jan-Peter Rudloff ,2010

Thrixopelma lagunas sp. n. is the fourth species of the genus distributed in Peru. It is characterized by a prolonged embolus in the male (fig.4-5) and very simple receptacula seminis in the female (fig. 9). The scopula of metatarsus III extends over a third of the segment only. In T. pruriens Schmidt, 1998 it covers 2/3, in T. cyaneolum Schmidt, Friebolin & Friebolin, 2005 and in T. ockerti Schmidt, 1994, 1/2 of the metatarsus III. It differs by its dark brown colour from T. cyaneolum which shows a cyan brightness of carapace and extremities and from T. ockerti by its spermathecae which are pointed- caplike. The new species is closely related to T. pruriens also distri-buted in Peru.

Ein Weibchen von Chilocosmia barensteinerae sp. n. aus Kalimantan (Borneo) (Theraphosidae: Selenocosmiinae)

Gunter Schmidt, Siegfried Hettegger, Jesko Matthes ,2010

Chilocosmia barenst9ineraels a new species of the genus and the first species of this genus from Kalimantan. hi adult female could be c:cllected In the South of Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of Borneo. It moulted on 20" August 2009. The male of this species is unknown. The exuvia has been studied by SCHMIDT who dissected the stridulation bristles and the sperrnathecae. The new species differs from all other spa... des of the genus by two additional rows of paddle and peglike strXluialing setae on the maxillae, one medium-sized and one very small. The differ· ences to C. p6erbooml SCHMIDT. 1999 from the island of Negros (Philippines) are besides two additional rows of paddle and peglike setae on maxillae, scopula of metatarsus IV the base of the segment not reaching, Tibia IV not thickened, distance ALE-PLE considerably larger, unpaired third claw absent, three pairs of sternal slgillae. hair red brown . Colour after moulting deep black. The biotope Is the tropical rain forest. whictt is very humid during the monsoon time. Ch//ocosmia SCHMIDT & VON WIRTH, 1992, in 2000 synonymized with Sel9nocosmia by RAVEN is a genus of its own and quite different from Selenocosmia AUSSERER,1871 . -Selenocosmia bom908nsis- nomen nudum (non vidimus) is probably an Omithoctoninae sp.

A taxonomic revision of the tarantula spider genus Lyrognathus Pocock 1895 (Araneae, Theraphosidae), with notes on the Selenocosmiinae

Rick C. West, Steven C. Nunn ,2010

The tarantula genus Lyrognathus Pocock 1895 is revised with three new species described: L. achilles sp. nov. from Gunung Nibung, Borneo; L. fuscus sp. nov. from Simpang Kubur, Borneo and L. lessunda sp. nov. from Lombok Island, Indonesia. The male of L. robustus Smith 1988 is described for the first time, the female is redescribed. L. crotalus Pocock 1895 is considered a senior synonym of L. pugnax Pocock 1900. Several new characters are discussed, with Lyrognathus keyed to species. The diagnosis of the Selenocosmiinae is amended. Zoogeographic distribution, natural history and subfamilial relationships with proposed sister genera Selenocosmia Ausserer 1871 and Coremiocnemis Simon 1892 are discussed. Lyrognathus saltator is redescribed. Selenocosmia lyra Strand 1913 is considered a nomen dubium.

Cyriocosmus venezuelensis sp. n. from Venezuela (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Radan Kaderka ,2010

Cyriocosmus venezuelensis sp. nov. from Venezuela, State of Lara and Carabobo, is described, diagnosed and keyed. The new species can be distinguished from all other congeners by its uniformly coloured carapace, dark ventral band on the abdomen and by the paraembolic apophysis in male palpal bulb being half the length of the embolus. Cyriocosmus rogerioi Pérez-Miles & Weinmann, 2009 is placed in the synonymy of Cyriocosmus pribiki Pérez-Miles & Weinmann, 2009, from which it does not differ in any characters of specific significance.

A taxonomic revision of the tarantula spider genus Coremiocnemis Simon 1892 (Araneae, Theraphosidae), with further notes on the Selenocosmiinae

Rick C. West, Steven C. Nunn ,2010

The selenocosmiine genus Coremiocnemis Simon 1892 is revised for the first time with six new species included. Five new species are from West Malaysia: C. brachyramosa sp. nov. from Gunung Ledang, Johor; C. gnathospina sp. nov. and C. hoggi sp. nov. from Fraser’s Hill, Selangor; C. jeremyhuffi sp. nov. from Tapah, Perak, Fraser’s Hill, Selangor to Pahang and C. obscura sp. nov. from Taiping, Perak to Cameron Highlands, Pahang. C. kotacana sp. nov. is described from Aceh Teneggara, Sumatra, being the first record of this genus outside Malaysia or Australia. A lectotype and paralectotype are designated for C. cunicularia (Simon 1892). All but two of Abraham’s non-type C. valida Pocock 1895 (Abraham 1924) specimens held in both the NHM and RMBR are newly transferred to C. cunicularia. Abraham’s two remaining specimens are removed from Coremiocnemis. C. valida is redescribed, its former dubious locality is resolved. Zoogeographic considerations of all species are discussed and resolved. Ontogenetic variation within Coremiocnemis is discussed. Several new characters are introduced. Subfamilial relationships with proposed sister genera Selenocosmia Ausserer 1871 and Lyrognathus Pocock 1895 are discussed. A key to species is provided.

Descripción de Acanthoscurria turumban sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae) y primer registro del género para Venezuela.

Carlos Rodríguez-Manzanilla, Rogério Bertani ,2010

Acanthoscurria turumban sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae) is described based on a male from State Bolivar, Venezuela. The new species resembles Acanthoscurria antillensis Pocock, 1903 and A. maga Simon, 1892 but can be distinguished by morphology of the male palpal organ and tibia I apophysis. The genus is recorded for the first time for Venezuela.

Agnostopelma: a new genus of tarantula without a scopula on leg IV (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Fernando Pérez-Miles, Dirk Weinmann ,2010

The new genus Agnostopelma Pe´rez-Miles & Weinmann is proposed for the type species A. tota n. sp. and A. gardel n. sp. from Boyaca´, Colombia. Agnostopelma build shelters under stones at high elevation. The new genus is unusual in lacking tarsal scopulae on its posterior legs and in having few labial cuspules and short leg tarsi in females.

Two new species of Cyriocosmus Simon, 1903 from Peru and the highest altitude record for the genus (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae)

Fernando Pérez-Miles, Dirk Weinmann ,2009

Two new species of Cyriocosmus (Theraphosinae) from Perú are described and illustrated. Both differ from most other species of Cyriocosmus in the absence of a stripped pattern on the abdomen and males with the retrolateral branch of tibial apophysis distally incrassate and flattened. The cladistic relationships within the genus are reanalyzed including these new taxa. Specimens of the new species were collected at altitudes of between 2200 and 3000 m, these records constituting the highest altitudinal record for the genus.

Description of two new species of Avicularia Lamarck 1818 and redescription of Avicularia diversipes (C.L. Koch 1842) (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) , three possibly threatened Brazilian species

Rogério Bertani, Caroline Sayuri Fukushima ,2009

Avicularia diversipes (C.L. Koch 1842) known previously only from its original description is redescribed along with Avicularia sooretama sp. nov. and Avicularia gamba sp. nov. The three species are endemic to Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. With other Avicularia species, they share a procurved anterior eye row, slender embolus and medially folded spermathecae, whereas they have unusual characters, such as a very long and spiraled embolus (A. diversipes) and spermathecae with multilobular apex (A. sooretama sp. nov.). Furthermore, the three species lack a tibial apophysis in males and share a distinctive color pattern ontogeny that is not known in any other Avicularia species. The conservation status of the three species is discussed, especially with respect to endemism, illegal trafficking and habitat destruction. The creation of protected areas in southern State of Bahia, Brazil, is recommended, as well as the inclusion of these species in IUCN and CITES lists. Appendices with figures and species information are presented to facilitate correct specimen identification by custom officers, in order to limit illegal traffic.

A new species of Oligoxystre Vellard 1924 (Araneae, Theraphosidae) from Brazil.

Rogério Bertani, Thiago dos Santos, Alexandre Ferreira Righi ,2009

A new species of Oligoxystre, Oligoxystre diamantinensis n. sp., is described from Brazil. Male can be distinguished from all other Oligoxystre species by the male palpal bulb lacking a small subapical keel on the embolus in conjunction with the embolus length (less than 2.5 times the tegulum length) and by the tibial spur being inserted in a perpendicular angle in relation to the tibia axis. Female can be distinguished by the spermathecae being much more longer than wide, lacking lateral lobes anda large terminal lobe with five smaller lobes around it. Additionally, males and females can be distinguished by the general blue metallic color pattern contrasting with the reddish setae on the abdomen. A key for all described Oligoxystre species is presented. The cladistic relationship of O. diamantinensis sp. n. with the other Oligoxystre species is discussed and data on its habitat is provided.

Zur Kenntnis der Gattung Phormictopus Pocock, 1901 - einem Faunenelement der Grossen Antillen (Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)

Jan-Peter Rudloff ,2008

Hitherto the genus Phormictopus POCOCK, 1901 consisted of 14 species and 2 subspecies of which 5 were reported from South America. This article reduces the species number to 12. Five new species are decribed, 4 new synonyms declared, 3 nomina dubia (missing types), and 3 of the former species belong to other genera (now status “incertae sedis”). The distribution of the genus Phormictopus is restricted to the Greater Antilles.

Revalidation and revision of the genus Magulla Simon 1892 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae)

Rafael Prezzi Indicatti, Sylvia M. Lucas, José Paulo Leite Guadanucci, Flávio Uemori Yamamoto ,2008

The genus Magulla Simon 1892 is revalidated and redescribed. The female of the type species M. obesa Simon 1892 is redescribed and the male is described for the first time. Magulla janeirus (Keyserling 1891) is considered a valid species. Magulla symmetrica Bucherl 1949 is transferred to Plesiopelma Pocock 1901, and considered a junior synonym of P. insulare (Mello-Leitao 1923). Additionally, two new species are described from Brazil: M. buecherli n. sp. from Ilhabela, Sao Paulo and M. brescoviti n. sp. from Sao Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul.

The identity of Mygale brunnipes C.L. Koch 1842 (Araneae, Theraphosidae), with a redescription of the species and the description of a new genus

Caroline Sayuri Fukushima, Roberto Hiroaki Nagahama, Rogério Bertani ,2008

We describe Kochiana new genus to accommodate a small Brazilian theraphosine species described originally as Mygale brunnipes by Koch (1842), resulting in Kochiana brunnipes new combination. Recently, specimens were rediscovered in northeastern Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. A preliminary cladistic analysis using equal weights parsimony and implied weights, was carried out to examine its phylogenetic placement. Kochiana new genus was monophyletic in all trees regardless of weighting scheme or concavity used. There is preliminary evidence for Kochiana new genus monophyly and weak evidence for its placement as sister group of Plesiopelma. Kochiana new genus can be characterized by the presence of a hornshaped spermatheca in females and males with a palpal bulb having prolateral accessory keels and a well developed medial crest on the embolus apex.

Review and cladistic analysis of the Neotropical tarantula genus Ephebopus Simon 1892 (Araneae: Theraphosidae) with notes on the Aviculariinae

Rick C. West, Samuel D Marshall, Caroline Sayuri Fukushima, Rogério Bertani ,2008

The tarantula genus Ephebopus Simon 1892 is reviewed and includes the type species, E. murinus (Walckenaer 1837),and E. uatuman Lucas, Silva & Bertani 1992, E. cyanognathus West & Marshall 2000, E. rufescens West & Marshall2000 and Ephebopus foliatus, sp. nov., from Guyana. Ephebopus violaceus Mello-Leitão 1930 is transferred to Tap-inauchenius Ausserer, where it is a senior synonym of Tapinauchenius purpureus Schmidt 1995 new synonymy. Ephebo-pus fossor Pocock 1903 is considered a nomen dubium. Ephebopus occurs in northeastern South America where it isknown only from Brazil, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana. Spiders of the genus are generally fossorial; however,Ephebopus murinus has a developmental stage that is arboreal. A cladistic analysis of the Theraphosidae retrieves theAviculariinae as monophyletic, including Avicularia Lamarck, Iridopelma Pocock 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock 1901,Tapinauchenius, Psalmopoeus Pocock, Ephebopus, Stromatopelma Karsch and Heteroscodra Pocock, having as a syna-pomorphy the well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi I–II that is very laterally extended.