The taxonomic status of four species of Avicularia Lamarck 1818 described from Uruguay: Avicularia anthracina (C.L. Koch 1842), Avicularia alticeps (Keyserling 1878), Avicularia parva (Keyserling 1878) and Avicularia tigrina (Pocock 1903) is discussed. The holotypes and/or original descriptions of these species were examined, and two taxonomic synonymies are needed, which are presented herein. Avicularia anthracina is transferred to Grammostola, resulting in Grammostola anthracina (C.L. Koch 1842) new combination and is considered a senior synonym of
Grammostola mollicoma Ausserer 1875 new synonymy. Likewise, Avicularia parva is transferred to Catumiri Guadanucci 2004, where it is placed in the synonymy of Catumiri uruguayense Guadanucci 2004 new synonymy. Avicularia tigrina and Avicularia alticeps, originally described in the genera Ischnocolus Ausserer 1875 and Pterinopelma Pocock 1901, respectively, are herein considered nomina dubia since their types are presumed lost.
Thrixopelma lagunas sp. n. is the
fourth species of the genus distributed
in Peru. It is characterized by
a prolonged embolus in the male
(fig.4-5) and very simple receptacula
seminis in the female (fig.
9). The scopula of metatarsus III
extends over a third of the segment
only. In T. pruriens Schmidt,
1998 it covers 2/3, in T. cyaneolum
Schmidt, Friebolin & Friebolin,
2005 and in T. ockerti Schmidt,
1994, 1/2 of the metatarsus III. It
differs by its dark brown colour
from T. cyaneolum which shows
a cyan brightness of carapace and
extremities and from T. ockerti by
its spermathecae which are pointed-
caplike. The new species is
closely related to T. pruriens also
distri-buted in Peru.
Chilocosmia barenst9ineraels a new species of the genus and the first species
of this genus from Kalimantan. hi adult female could be c:cllected In the
South of Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of Borneo. It moulted on 20"
August 2009. The male of this species is unknown.
The exuvia has been studied by SCHMIDT who dissected the stridulation
bristles and the sperrnathecae. The new species differs from all other spa...
des of the genus by two additional rows of paddle and peglike strXluialing
setae on the maxillae, one medium-sized and one very small. The differ·
ences to C. p6erbooml SCHMIDT. 1999 from the island of Negros (Philippines)
are besides two additional rows of paddle and peglike setae on maxillae,
scopula of metatarsus IV the base of the segment not reaching, Tibia IV
not thickened, distance ALE-PLE considerably larger, unpaired third claw
absent, three pairs of sternal slgillae. hair red brown . Colour after moulting
deep black. The biotope Is the tropical rain forest. whictt is very humid during
the monsoon time. Ch//ocosmia SCHMIDT & VON WIRTH, 1992, in 2000
synonymized with Sel9nocosmia by RAVEN is a genus of its own and quite
different from Selenocosmia AUSSERER,1871 .
-Selenocosmia bom908nsis- nomen nudum (non vidimus) is probably an
The tarantula genus Lyrognathus Pocock 1895 is revised with three new species described: L. achilles sp. nov. from Gunung Nibung, Borneo; L. fuscus sp. nov. from Simpang Kubur, Borneo and L. lessunda sp. nov. from Lombok Island, Indonesia. The male of L. robustus Smith 1988 is described for the first time, the female is redescribed. L. crotalus
Pocock 1895 is considered a senior synonym of L. pugnax Pocock 1900. Several new characters are discussed, with Lyrognathus keyed to species. The diagnosis of the Selenocosmiinae is amended. Zoogeographic distribution, natural
history and subfamilial relationships with proposed sister genera Selenocosmia Ausserer 1871 and Coremiocnemis Simon 1892 are discussed. Lyrognathus saltator is redescribed. Selenocosmia lyra Strand 1913 is considered a nomen dubium.
Cyriocosmus venezuelensis sp. nov. from Venezuela, State of Lara and Carabobo,
is described, diagnosed and keyed. The new species can be distinguished from
all other congeners by its uniformly coloured carapace, dark ventral band on the
abdomen and by the paraembolic apophysis in male palpal bulb being half the
length of the embolus. Cyriocosmus rogerioi Pérez-Miles & Weinmann, 2009 is
placed in the synonymy of Cyriocosmus pribiki Pérez-Miles & Weinmann, 2009, from which
it does not differ in any characters of specific significance.
The selenocosmiine genus Coremiocnemis
Simon 1892 is revised for the first time with six new species included. Five new species are from West Malaysia: C. brachyramosa
sp. nov. from Gunung Ledang, Johor; C. gnathospina
sp. nov. and C. hoggi
sp. nov. from Fraser’s Hill, Selangor; C. jeremyhuffi
sp. nov. from Tapah, Perak, Fraser’s Hill, Selangor to Pahang and C. obscura
sp. nov. from Taiping, Perak to Cameron Highlands, Pahang. C. kotacana
sp. nov. is described from Aceh Teneggara, Sumatra, being the first record of this genus outside Malaysia or Australia. A lectotype and paralectotype
are designated for C. cunicularia
(Simon 1892). All but two of Abraham’s non-type C. valida
Pocock 1895 (Abraham 1924) specimens held in both the NHM and RMBR are newly transferred to C. cunicularia
. Abraham’s two remaining specimens are removed from Coremiocnemis
. C. valida
is redescribed, its former dubious locality is resolved. Zoogeographic considerations of all species are discussed and resolved. Ontogenetic variation within Coremiocnemis
is discussed. Several new characters are introduced. Subfamilial relationships with proposed sister genera Selenocosmia
Ausserer 1871 and Lyrognathus
Pocock 1895 are discussed. A key to species is provided.
In this study Hemirrhagus perezmilesi sp. nov., is described. The males of this species differ from other of the genus in the absence of tibial spurs. This is the first record of Hemirrhagus in Chiapas Mexico apart from fossil records found in amber.
Acanthoscurria turumban sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae) is described based on a male from State Bolivar, Venezuela.
The new species resembles Acanthoscurria antillensis Pocock, 1903 and A. maga Simon, 1892 but can be distinguished
by morphology of the male palpal organ and tibia I apophysis. The genus is recorded for the first time for Venezuela.
The new genus Agnostopelma Pe´rez-Miles & Weinmann is proposed for the type species A. tota n. sp. and A.
gardel n. sp. from Boyaca´, Colombia. Agnostopelma build shelters under stones at high elevation. The new genus is unusual
in lacking tarsal scopulae on its posterior legs and in having few labial cuspules and short leg tarsi in females.
A new species of Hapalopus Ausserer, 1875 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae) from Bolivia is described and illustrated, based in males and females
Two new species of Cyriocosmus (Theraphosinae) from Perú are described
and illustrated. Both differ from most other species of Cyriocosmus in the absence
of a stripped pattern on the abdomen and males with the retrolateral
branch of tibial apophysis distally incrassate and flattened. The cladistic relationships within the genus are reanalyzed including these new taxa. Specimens
of the new species were collected at altitudes of between 2200 and 3000 m,
these records constituting the highest altitudinal record for the genus.
Avicularia diversipes (C.L. Koch 1842) known previously only from its original description is redescribed along with Avicularia sooretama sp. nov. and Avicularia gamba sp. nov. The three species are endemic to Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. With other Avicularia species, they share a procurved anterior eye row, slender embolus and medially folded spermathecae, whereas they have unusual characters, such as a very long and spiraled embolus (A. diversipes) and spermathecae with multilobular apex (A. sooretama sp. nov.). Furthermore, the three species lack a tibial apophysis in
males and share a distinctive color pattern ontogeny that is not known in any other Avicularia species. The conservation status of the three species is discussed, especially with respect to endemism, illegal trafficking and habitat destruction.
The creation of protected areas in southern State of Bahia, Brazil, is recommended, as well as the inclusion of these species in IUCN and CITES lists. Appendices with figures and species information are presented to facilitate correct specimen identification by custom officers, in order to limit illegal traffic.
A new species of Oligoxystre, Oligoxystre diamantinensis n. sp., is described from Brazil. Male can be distinguished from all other Oligoxystre species by the male palpal bulb lacking a small subapical keel on the embolus in conjunction with the embolus length (less than 2.5 times the tegulum length) and by the tibial spur being inserted in a perpendicular angle in relation to the tibia axis. Female can be distinguished by the spermathecae being much more longer than wide, lacking lateral lobes anda large terminal lobe with five smaller lobes around it. Additionally, males and females can be distinguished by the general blue metallic color pattern contrasting with the reddish setae on the abdomen. A key for all described Oligoxystre species is presented. The cladistic relationship of O. diamantinensis sp. n. with the other Oligoxystre species is discussed and data on its habitat is provided.
The two Indian Ischnolocus species, I. decoratus and I. khasiensis are transferred to the genus Chilobrachys Karsch, 1891 based on presence and pattern of stridulatory setae on maxillae and chelicerae. Further, Ischnocolus decoratus is synonymised with Chilobrachys fimbriatus Pocock, 1899.
Hitherto the genus Phormictopus POCOCK, 1901 consisted of 14 species and 2 subspecies of
which 5 were reported from South America. This article reduces the species number to 12.
Five new species are decribed, 4 new synonyms declared, 3 nomina dubia (missing types),
and 3 of the former species belong to other genera (now status “incertae sedis”). The distribution of the genus Phormictopus is restricted to the Greater Antilles.
The genus Magulla Simon 1892 is revalidated and redescribed. The female of the type species M. obesa Simon 1892 is redescribed and the male is described for the first time. Magulla janeirus (Keyserling 1891) is considered a valid species. Magulla symmetrica Bucherl 1949 is transferred to Plesiopelma Pocock 1901, and considered a junior synonym of P. insulare (Mello-Leitao 1923). Additionally, two new species are described from Brazil: M. buecherli n. sp. from Ilhabela, Sao Paulo and M. brescoviti n. sp. from Sao Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul.
We describe Kochiana new genus to accommodate a small Brazilian theraphosine species described originally as Mygale brunnipes by Koch (1842), resulting in Kochiana brunnipes new combination. Recently, specimens were rediscovered in northeastern Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. A preliminary cladistic analysis using equal weights parsimony and implied weights, was carried out to examine its phylogenetic placement. Kochiana new genus was monophyletic in all trees regardless of weighting scheme or concavity used. There is preliminary evidence for Kochiana new genus monophyly and weak evidence for its placement as sister group of Plesiopelma. Kochiana new genus can be characterized by the presence of a hornshaped spermatheca in females and males with a palpal bulb having prolateral accessory keels and a well developed medial crest on the embolus apex.
The tarantula genus Ephebopus Simon 1892 is reviewed and includes the type species, E. murinus (Walckenaer 1837),and E. uatuman Lucas, Silva & Bertani 1992, E. cyanognathus West & Marshall 2000, E. rufescens West & Marshall2000 and Ephebopus foliatus, sp. nov., from Guyana. Ephebopus violaceus Mello-Leitão 1930 is transferred to Tap-inauchenius Ausserer, where it is a senior synonym of Tapinauchenius purpureus Schmidt 1995 new synonymy. Ephebo-pus fossor Pocock 1903 is considered a nomen dubium. Ephebopus occurs in northeastern South America where it isknown only from Brazil, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana. Spiders of the genus are generally fossorial; however,Ephebopus murinus has a developmental stage that is arboreal. A cladistic analysis of the Theraphosidae retrieves theAviculariinae as monophyletic, including Avicularia Lamarck, Iridopelma Pocock 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock 1901,Tapinauchenius, Psalmopoeus Pocock, Ephebopus, Stromatopelma Karsch and Heteroscodra Pocock, having as a syna-pomorphy the well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi I–II that is very laterally extended.
gen. et sp. nov. is described from eastern Cuba and its phylogenetic relationships are discussed. Males are characterized by presenting a denticulate subapical keel on the palpal bulbs, a nodule in the retrolateral side of the palpal tibiae and two-branched tibial spurs on legs I. Both sexes lack stridulating apparatus, possess urticating hairs of types I and III and the retrolateral side of the femora IV covered by a pad of ciliate hairs, in addition to the Theraphosinae synapomorphies. A list of currently recognized 49 genera of Theraphosinae is given, as well as data on its composition and depository institutions
of type specimens of type species. Mygale nigrum
Walckenaer 1837 is recovered as the type species of Homoeomma
Ten theraphosid spiders of the genera Citharognathus
Pocock 1895, Haplopelma
Simon 1892, Chilobrachys
Karsch 1891, Yamia
Kishida 1920 and Selenocosmia
Ausserer 1871 from China are described, including four new species, namely Selenocosmia xinping
sp. nov., S. jiafu
sp. nov., S. xinhuaensis
sp. nov., and Chilobrachys liboensis
is transferred to the genus Chilobrachys
. Additionally, the species Chilobrachys jingzhao
Zhu, Song & Li, 2001 is newly synonymized with Chilobrachys guangxiensis
(Yin & Tan 2000)
In this paper a new species of Brachypelma
from Veracruz, Mexico, Brachypelma kahlenbergi
n. sp., is described. Males and females are almost entirely black with red orange setae on the dorsal face of the opisthosoma. The species described here is named in honour of Herwig KAHLENBERG, Berlin, Germany, who first recognized that it is an undescribed species of Brachypelma.
A new Theraphosinae of the genus Bonnetina is described from Tepoztlan, Morelos, Mexico
A new genus Ami Pérez-Miles is proposed for six new species: A. caxiuana Pérez-Miles, Miglio & Bonaldo, from Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará, Brasil, the type species; A. yupanquii Pérez-Miles, Gabriel & Gallon, from the area of Puyo,
Equador; A. bladesi Pérez-Miles, Gabriel & Gallon, from Isla Colón, Panamá; A. pijaos Jimenez & Bertani, from Ibagué, Tolima, Colombia; A. amazonica Jimenez & Bertani, from Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia; and A. weinmanni Pérez-Miles, from La Azulita, Apure, Venezuela. Avicularia obscura (Ausserer 1875) is transferred to Ami and re-diagnosed.
Diagnostic characters of Ami are the modification of Type I urticating hairs, with unusually longer area b, and one or two subconical processes on retrolateral face of male palpal tibiae. Females of Ami differ further from those of other theraphosid
genera by their highly characteristic spermathecae: paired ventral receptacles attached to an almost discrete, semicircular, sclerotized back-plate.
Present paper describes two species of spiders discovered during a study on the
diversity of spiders of Kerala state, India. These species belong to the genera
Sason (Barychelidae) and Annandaliella (Theraphosidae). Annandaliella ernaku-
lamensis new species discovered from Ernakulam is characterized by a tibial
apophysis in the form of short broad lobe of comb-like series of stout black
spines and a characteristically different stridulatory spines on the chelicerae.
Sason robustum is a redescription of the species based on a new specimen.
Both species are illustrated and fully described during the study. SEM studies
were undertaken in A. ernakulamensis sp. nov.