The theraphosid spider genera Heterophrictus Pocock, 1900 and Neoheterophrictus Siliwal & Raven, 2012 are rediagnosed in this paper and a new genus, Sahydroaraneus gen. nov. is described from Southern Western Ghats. Four new species (two each of Heterophrictus and Neoheterophrictus) and one of Sahydroaraneus gen. nov. are described from the Western Ghats. Plesiophrictus mahabaleshwari Tikader, 1977 is removed from the synonymy of Heterophrictus milleti Pocock, 1900 and is treated as a junior synonym of Heterophrictus blatteri (Gravely, 1935). Plesiophrictus bhori Gravely, 1915 is transferred to the genus Neoheterophrictus, Neoheterophrictus bhori (Gravely, 1915) new combination. The genus, Sahydroaraneus gen. nov., resembles tarantula belonging to the genus, Neoheterophrictus but differs with respect to structure of tibial apophysis and spermathecae. Detailed ultra-structure of setae type of the Indian Eumenophorinae is presented for the first time along with notes on their biogeography. Common elements among Africa, Madagascar and India like the Eumenophorinae and several other mygalomorph spiders advocate mygalomorphae as an important group for evolutionary investigation due to their inability for long distance dispersal rendering the members restrictive in distribution.
In this study the Brazilian Amazonian species of Acanthoscurria Ausserer, 1871 are redescribed: A. geniculata (C.L. Koch, 1841), A. tarda Pocock, 1903, A. juruenicola Mello-Leitão, 1923, A. theraphosoides (Doleschall, 1871). Acanthoscurria simoensi Vol, 2000 and A. insubtilis Simon, 1892, previously known from French Guyana and Bolivia, respectively, are recorded for Brazil by the first time. The females of these two species are described for the first time and a new species, A. belterrensis sp. nov., is described from Belterra, Pará, Brazil. In addition, four synonymies are established: A. transamazonica Piza, 1972 as junior synonym of A. geniculata; A. ferina Simon, 1892 and A. brocklehursti F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1896 of A. theraphosoides; and A. xinguensis Timotheo da Costa, 1960 of A. juruenicola. Acanthoscurria belterrensis sp. nov. resembles A. gomesiana Mello-Leitão, 1923 by the color pattern and structure of sexual organs. The male can be distinguished by the less curved embolus and the very projected prolateral superior and prolateral inferior keels, giving a triangular aspect to the basis of embolus, and the female seminal receptacles presenting a larger and narrower basis.
A new species of Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892, is described from sandstone/quartizitic caves of Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil. This is the fifth species of the genus and the first record of a troglobitic mygalomorph in Brazil. A key is presented for all Tmesiphantes species.
Munduruku gen. nov. is proposed for the type species Munduruku bicoloratum sp. nov., from Juruti and Santarém, Pará, Brazil. The main diagnostic character of Munduruku gen. nov. is the presence of a subapical, lanceolate keel on the male palpal bulb, which is unique among the basal taxa of Theraphosinae with type III-IV urticating setae. The female spermathecae consist of two spheroid receptacles with funnel-shaped necks, each of which bears a sclerotized area. In both sexes, the abdomen is remarkably patterned, an uncommon feature in adults of New World theraphosids. Both the bulbus lanceolate keel and the abdominal color pattern are hypothesized as synapomorphies of the genus.
Grammostola diminuta sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae) is described from northwestern Argentina; Grammostola vachoni Schiapelli and Gerschman 1961 is considered a senior synonym of Grammostola fossor syn. nov. Schmidt 2001 on the basis of material examined from the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” (MACN-Ar). The geographic distribution of G. vachoni is extended on the basis of new records. Additionally, we present new diagnoses and new distributional data for Grammostola chalcothrix Chamberlin 1917, Grammostola inermis Mello-Leitão, 1941 and Grammostola pulchripes (Simon 1891).
A new species of the genus Citharacanthus Pocock, 1901 from Chiapas, Mexico is described and distinguishes from the congeners by the shape of spermathecae.
A remarkable new species of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Avicularia rickwesti sp. nov., is described from Dominican Republic. Female specimens of the new species are unusual by having two very short and broad spermathecae with distal half strongly sclerotized, a feature not found in any other aviculariine. Additionally, it has the leg coxae with
spiniform setae, smaller on leg I and prolateral leg II, larger, black on retrolateral leg II, prolateral and retrolateral leg III and prolateral leg IV. Males are unknown. The new species is known only from two localities, in southwestern Dominican Republic. This is the first record for the subfamily on Hispañola which is close to the northern boundary for the Aviculariinae distribution.
A new species is described in the tarantula genus Lyrognathus Pocock 1895, being the first record of this taxon from Sumatra, Indonesia. Lyrognathus giannisposatoi sp. nov. is also unique in its habitat selection, being the first confirmed lowland species from this genus. A new key to Lyrognathus species is provided, and a biogeography of the group is briefly discussed.
Two new species of Plesiopelma Pocock, 1901 from northern Argentina are described and diagnosed based on males and habitat descriptions are presented. Males of Plesiopelma paganoi sp. nov. differ from most of species by the absence of spiniform setae on the retrolateral face of cymbium, aspect of the palpal bulb. Plesiopelma aspidosperma sp. nov. differs from most species of the genus by the presence of spiniform setae on the retrolateral face of cymbium and it can be distinguished from P. myodes Pocock, 1901, P. longisternale (Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1942) and P. rectimanum (Mello-Leitão, 1923) by the separated palpal bulb keels and basal nodule of metatarsus I very developed. It differs from P. minense (Mello-Leitão, 1943) by the shape of the palpal bulb and basal nodule on metatarsus I well developed. Specimens were captured in Salta province, Argentina, inhabiting high cloud forests of Yungas eco-region.
According to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, 1999),
the authors request the rejection of the specific epithets of Trichopelma cubanum (Banks,
1909) and Trichopelma maculatum (Franganillo, 1930) [Family Barychelidae] and
propose Trichopelma banksia comb. nov. and Trichopelma eucubanum comb. nov.
instead of them.
Two new species of the genus Tmesiphantes from Serra do Espinhaço, state of Minas Gerais are described. They comprise the first records of the genus outside the Atlantic Forest. Furthermore, the examination of all type material of the genera Tmesiphantes and Melloleitaoina, which have been suggested as sister groups, showed that the thickness of femur III, used to distinguish between them, shows a continuous variation, and the taxonomic usage of this character is discussed.
The selenocosmiine genus Psednocnemis gen. nov. is described from the Sundaland region of South-east Asia. The type species Psednocnemis davidgohi sp. nov., which the male was incorrectly identified as Coremiocnemis hoggi West & Nunn 2010, is herein described. Cladistic analyses of 46 morphological characters and 39 exemplar taxa from 12 genera
were done. The genera analysed were: Reichlingia Rudloff 2001; ingroup: Chilobrachys Karsch 1891; Coremiocnemis Simon 1892; Haplocosmia Schmidt & von Wirth 1996; Lyrognathus Pocock 1895; Orphnaecus Simon 1892; Phlogiellus Pocock 1897; Poecilotheria Simon 1885; Psednocnemis gen. nov.; Selenobrachys Schmidt 1999; Selenocosmia Ausserer
1871 (in part: Sundaland fauna only); Yamia Kishida 1920. The results presented Psednocnemis gen. nov. as monophyletic based on presence of a distal embolic spiral curl in males and presence of a distodorsal spiniform brush on the retrolateral
surfaces of coxa IV, as well as the reduction in density of hair type 4, located along the proximoventral abdomen of both sexes. Two new tribes are described: Chilobrachini trib. nov. and Phlogiellini trib. nov., based upon basal nodes with strongest
branch support that best reflected natural groups. Selenocosmiini Simon 1889 and Poecilotheriini Simon 1889 are revised and redescribed. Yamia Kishida 1920 is placed into junior synonymy of Phlogiellus (syn. nov.); Chilocosmia Schmidt & von Wirth 1992 and Selenobrachys Schmidt 1999 are placed into junior synonymy of Orphnaecus (syn. nov.); Selenocosmia xinping Zhu & Zhang 2008 is transferred to Phlogiellus, makng the new combination Phlogiellus xinping (Zhu & Zhang 2008) comb. nov.; Selenocosmia dichromata (Schmidt & von Wirth 1992) is transferred to Orphnaecus, making the new combination Orphnaecus dichromata (Schmit & von Wirth 1992) comb. nov.; Coremiocnemis brachyramosa West & Nunn 2010, Coremiocnemis gnathospina West & Nunn 2010, Coremiocnemis jeremyhuffi West & Nunn 2010 and Selenocosmia imbellis (Simon 1891) are transferred to Psednocnemis gen. et comb. nov. Poecilotherinae (Schmidt 1995) is no longer considered a valid subfamily and is replaced into Selenocosmiinae as the tribe Poecilotheriini.
Chilocosmia barensteinerae Schmidt et al. 2010 is considered a Selenocosmiinae species incertae sedis. Ischnocolella senffti Strand 1907 is considered a nomen dubium. All other genera examined were retrieved as monophyletic in the first
cladistic analyses exclusive to Selenocosmiinae genera (Australo-Papuan selenocosmiines are outside the scope of this work and are not considered). Biogeography of all Selenocosmiinae is discussed; the group is a potential model North
Gondwanan taxon. A key to Psednocnemis species is provided.
The subfamily Ischnocolinae of the family Theraphosidae is a generic complex and Raven (1985) considered all genera (including the only Indian genus Plesiophrictus Pocock, 1899) as incertae sedis. These genera require re-examination of the type specimens along with examination of new collections from the type locality to revalidate their taxonomic position under Ischnocolinae. Recently, Guadanucci (2011) revalidated the genus Heterophrictus Pocock, 1900 and removed it from the junior synonym of Plesiophrictus; he also provided distinct generic characters for Heterophrictus and Plesiophrictus, which are helpful in the revision of Indian Plesiophrictus. Though the taxonomic position of Heterophrictus is still confusing in the absence of cladistic analysis (R. Raven pers. comm. 7 February 2012), in this paper, we consider Heterophrictus a valid genus until further cladistic analysis (based on more specimens) is published.
Three aviculariine genera endemic to Brazil are revised. Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850 is resurrected, including five species; Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 includes two species; and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, six species. Nine species are newly described: Typhochlaena amma sp. n., T. costae sp. n., T. curumim sp. n., T. paschoali sp. n., Pachistopelma bromelicola sp. n., Iridopelma katiae sp. n., I. marcoi sp. n., I. oliveirai sp. n. and I. vanini sp. n. Three new synonymies are established: Avicularia pulchra Mello-Leitão, 1933 and Avicularia recifiensis Struchen & Brändle, 1996 are junior synonyms of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 syn. n., and Avicularia palmicola Mello-Leitão, 1945 is a junior synonym of Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 syn. n. Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947 is transferred to Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, making the new combination Tapinauchenius concolor (Caporiacco, 1947) comb. n. Lectotypes are newly designed for Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 , Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 and Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix comprising 62 characters and 38 terminal taxa. The chosen cladogram found with X-Pee-Wee and concavity 6 suggests they are monophyletic. All species are keyed and mapped and information on species habitat and area cladograms are presented. Discussion on biogeography and conservation is provided.
A new species of Eupalaestrus Pocock, 1901 from northern Argentina is described and illustrated. Males and females of Eupalaestrus larae
sp. nov. differ from those all other species of the genus by the color with distinct two parallel longitudinal stripes on the femora, patellae, tibiae and one longitudinal stripe reaching half of metatarsi; the presence of a thickened femur and tibia IV; a straight embolus of the male palpal bulb and retrolateral keel pronounced. Specimens were captured in Chaco province, inhabiting unflooded flat grasslands open areas inside forest in transitional Chaco eco-region.
A new genus, Catanduba
, is proposed and supported on the cladistic analysis with the following synapomorphies: embolus tapering abruptly from half of the length, embolus tooth associated with PIK and a triangular basal nodule on male metatarsus I. Homoeomma simoni and Plesiopelma flavohirtum are transferred to Catanduba and five new species are described: C. tuskae
, C. araguaia
, C. piauiensis
, C. canabrava
and C. peruacu
. The species occur mainly in central Brazil,
in Cerrado areas, with some species also occurring in Atlantic forest (C. tuskae
sp. n. ) and Caatinga (C. piauiensis sp. n.
and C. peruacu
Six mygalomorphs of the family Idiopidae and Theraphosidae are dealt with. The taxa, Heligmomerus Simon, H. barkudensis (Gravely, 1921), H. garoensis (Tikader, 1977) comb. nov. and Chilobrachys khasiensis (Tikader, 1977) are reported for the first time from the state of West Bengal and Chilobrachys stridulans (Wood Mason, 1877) from Arunachal Pradesh. All these rare and poorly known mygalomorphs are diagnosed and illustrated in the interest of Indian Arachnology.
The genus Oligoxystre
was originally established in 1924 for O. auratum
Vellard 1924 from southern state of Goia´s, Central Brazil. Today, the genus includes seven species: O. auratum
, O. caatinga
Guadanucci 2007, O. bolivianum
(Vol 2001), O. tucuruiense
Guadanucci 2007, O. rufoniger
Guadanucci 2007, O. dominguense
Guadanucci 2007, and O. diamantinensis
Bertani et al. 2009. Oligoxystre mineirum
new species, from the Atlantic forest domain is described here. The cladistic analysis resulted in a single tree: (O.caatinga
))))). According to the area cladogram obtained, it is possible to draw the following conclusions: the origin of the Cerrado fauna is monophyletic; the occurrence of two sympatric species in Caatinga is due to different events; and the diversity of
Oligoxystre in Serra do Espinhac¸o (O. rufoniger
, O. diamantinensis
and O. mineirum
) is probably the result of the contact of the typical fauna of each bioma (Cerrado, Caatinga and Atlantic Forest).
We revalidate the theraphosid genus Pterinopelma Pocock 1901, describe the female of P. vitiosum for first time and Pterinopelma
sazimai sp. nov. from Brazil. These two species were included in a matrix with 35 characters and 32 taxa and
were analyzed both with all characters having same weight and with implied weights. Searches considering all characters
non-additive or some additive were also carried out. The preferred tree, obtained with implied weights, concavity 6 and
all characters non-additive shows that Pterinopelma is a monophyletic genus sister to the clade Lasiodora (Vitalius +
Nhandu). The presence of denticles on the prolateral inferior male palpal bulb keel is a synapomorphy of the genus.
A new species of Hapalopus Ausserer, 1875 is described from Guyana. This species represents the first record of the genus from Guyana and brings the total number of theraphosid spider species recorded from Guyana to eleven.
A new species of the genus Bonnetina Vol, 2000, based on differences bulb palpate male is described spermathecae female, number of teeth and the ratio quelíceros the legs in the male. Further proposed taxonomic guide for the four known species of far.
We describe and ﬁgure a new species of the genus
Schismatothele Karsch, 1879 from Brazil, Amazonas state,to the north of Manaus. This species comprises the ﬁrstmale known for the genus and the ﬁrst report of the genus
Schismatothele for Brazil. The new species diﬀers from theonly known species,
Schismatothele lineata Karsch, 1879 inthe morphology of the spermathecae in which the dorsalreceptacles have internal tubular digitiform lobules.
The taxonomic status of four species of Avicularia Lamarck 1818 described from Uruguay: Avicularia anthracina (C.L. Koch 1842), Avicularia alticeps (Keyserling 1878), Avicularia parva (Keyserling 1878) and Avicularia tigrina (Pocock 1903) is discussed. The holotypes and/or original descriptions of these species were examined, and two taxonomic synonymies are needed, which are presented herein. Avicularia anthracina is transferred to Grammostola, resulting in Grammostola anthracina (C.L. Koch 1842) new combination and is considered a senior synonym of
Grammostola mollicoma Ausserer 1875 new synonymy. Likewise, Avicularia parva is transferred to Catumiri Guadanucci 2004, where it is placed in the synonymy of Catumiri uruguayense Guadanucci 2004 new synonymy. Avicularia tigrina and Avicularia alticeps, originally described in the genera Ischnocolus Ausserer 1875 and Pterinopelma Pocock 1901, respectively, are herein considered nomina dubia since their types are presumed lost.