New specimens of the genus Hapalotremus (Theraphosinae) are revised based on the examination of types and additional material collected in Argentina, Bolivia and Peru. A new generic diagnosis is proposed. New information and illustrations are provided for known species and seven new species were recognized and are newly described and illustrated. Hence, Hapalotremus comprises 10 valid species, distributed along the Andes and Yungas in western South America. All species are keyed and mapped. New taxonomic features are included in the descriptions and the detail of embolus keels morphology and positions are described for the first time for the genus. Information on species habitat is included. The highest altitude record for a Theraphosidae spider, living at 4524 m above sea level, is reported.
A detailed re-description of the type specimen of Trichopelma cubanum (Simon, 1903) is presented. Comments and observations are made regarding morphological characters, such as the absence of teeth on the paired claws and the presence of small teeth on the anterior edge of the booklung opening. These characters, found in other species of Trichopelma Simon, 1888 (represented in the Neotropical region by 16 species), suggest that the recent transfer of the genus to Theraphosidae may be unjustified, and that Trichopelma may indeed be more closely related to the Barychelidae.