The genus Typhochlaena C.L. Koch, 1850 consists of five small size arboreal tarantula species with remarkable colored abdominal patterns and a very restricted geographic range in Brazil. Here, we describe the male of Typhochlaena curumim Bertani, 2012, which was collected in an area of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. The new record extends the northern limit of the geographic range for both the genus and species. As Typhochlaena spp. are now especially popular and requested in the pet market, and because T. curumim is classified as Critically Endangered, we discuss the impacts of the international trade and other challenges on conservation of the genus.