New specimens of the genus Hapalotremus (Theraphosinae) are revised based on the examination of types and additional material collected in Argentina, Bolivia and Peru. A new generic diagnosis is proposed. New information and illustrations are provided for known species and seven new species were recognized and are newly described and illustrated. Hence, Hapalotremus comprises 10 valid species, distributed along the Andes and Yungas in western South America. All species are keyed and mapped. New taxonomic features are included in the descriptions and the detail of embolus keels morphology and positions are described for the first time for the genus. Information on species habitat is included. The highest altitude record for a Theraphosidae spider, living at 4524 m above sea level, is reported.
The tarantula genus Phlogiellus (Pocock 1897) is revised. The genus is diagnosed against all other selenocosmiine genera for the first time along with a new generic description. The tribe Yamiini (Kishida 1920) is diagnosed against all other selenocosmiine tribes. All Phlogiellus species are diagnosed from all congeners; all species are mapped. Complete dichotomous keys for both sexes of all species are included. Where appropriate, intraspecific variation is discussed. Four new species are described: P. bogadeki sp. nov. from Hong Kong, P. johnreylazoi sp. nov. from Palawan Island, Philippines, P. moniqueverdezae sp. nov. from Ranong, Thailand, and P. pelidnus sp. nov. from Sabah, Borneo. The type species P. atriceps (Pocock 1897) holotype male is redescribed and the male P. baeri (Simon 1877) is described in detail for the first time. The validity of P. inermis (Ausserer 1871) is confirmed. Relationships between all known selenocosmiine genera and Phlogiellus from the Philippines are discussed and several character traits are newly diagnosed. The tribe Phlogiellini (West et al. 2012) is a junior synonym of Yamiini (Kishida 1920). Selenocosmia orophila (Thorell 1897) from Myanmar, Selenocosmia insulana (Hirst 1909) from Djampea (= Jampea) Island, and Selenocosmia obscura (Hirst 1909) from Sarawak, Borneo, are transferred to Phlogiellus, altering the specific names to Phlogiellus orophilus (Thorell 1897) comb. nov., Phlogiellus insulanus (Hirst 1909) comb. nov., and Phlogiellus obscurus (Hirst 1909) comb. nov. Phlogiellus subarmatus (Thorell 1891) is transferred to Chilobrachys (Karsch 1891), becoming Chilobrachys subarmatus (Thorell 1891) comb. nov. Phlogiellus kwebaburdeos (Barrion-Dupo et al., 2014) is transferred to Orphnaecus (Simon 1892), becoming Orphnaecus kwebaburdeos (Barrion-Dupo et al., 2014) comb. nov. Phlogiellus ornatus (Thorell 1897) and Phlogiellus nebulosus (Rainbow 1899) are considered species inquirenda. Phlogiellus baeri (Simon 1877) is no longer considered incertae sedis; Phlogiellus bicolor (Strand 1911) and Phlogiellus insularis (Simon 1877) are considered incertae sedis.
A new species is described in the tarantula genus Lyrognathus Pocock 1895, being the first record of this taxon from Sumatra, Indonesia. Lyrognathus giannisposatoi sp. nov. is also unique in its habitat selection, being the first confirmed lowland species from this genus. A new key to Lyrognathus species is provided, and a biogeography of the group is briefly discussed.
The selenocosmiine genus Psednocnemis gen. nov. is described from the Sundaland region of South-east Asia. The type species Psednocnemis davidgohi sp. nov., which the male was incorrectly identified as Coremiocnemis hoggi West & Nunn 2010, is herein described. Cladistic analyses of 46 morphological characters and 39 exemplar taxa from 12 genera
were done. The genera analysed were: Reichlingia Rudloff 2001; ingroup: Chilobrachys Karsch 1891; Coremiocnemis Simon 1892; Haplocosmia Schmidt & von Wirth 1996; Lyrognathus Pocock 1895; Orphnaecus Simon 1892; Phlogiellus Pocock 1897; Poecilotheria Simon 1885; Psednocnemis gen. nov.; Selenobrachys Schmidt 1999; Selenocosmia Ausserer
1871 (in part: Sundaland fauna only); Yamia Kishida 1920. The results presented Psednocnemis gen. nov. as monophyletic based on presence of a distal embolic spiral curl in males and presence of a distodorsal spiniform brush on the retrolateral
surfaces of coxa IV, as well as the reduction in density of hair type 4, located along the proximoventral abdomen of both sexes. Two new tribes are described: Chilobrachini trib. nov. and Phlogiellini trib. nov., based upon basal nodes with strongest
branch support that best reflected natural groups. Selenocosmiini Simon 1889 and Poecilotheriini Simon 1889 are revised and redescribed. Yamia Kishida 1920 is placed into junior synonymy of Phlogiellus (syn. nov.); Chilocosmia Schmidt & von Wirth 1992 and Selenobrachys Schmidt 1999 are placed into junior synonymy of Orphnaecus (syn. nov.); Selenocosmia xinping Zhu & Zhang 2008 is transferred to Phlogiellus, makng the new combination Phlogiellus xinping (Zhu & Zhang 2008) comb. nov.; Selenocosmia dichromata (Schmidt & von Wirth 1992) is transferred to Orphnaecus, making the new combination Orphnaecus dichromata (Schmit & von Wirth 1992) comb. nov.; Coremiocnemis brachyramosa West & Nunn 2010, Coremiocnemis gnathospina West & Nunn 2010, Coremiocnemis jeremyhuffi West & Nunn 2010 and Selenocosmia imbellis (Simon 1891) are transferred to Psednocnemis gen. et comb. nov. Poecilotherinae (Schmidt 1995) is no longer considered a valid subfamily and is replaced into Selenocosmiinae as the tribe Poecilotheriini.
Chilocosmia barensteinerae Schmidt et al. 2010 is considered a Selenocosmiinae species incertae sedis. Ischnocolella senffti Strand 1907 is considered a nomen dubium. All other genera examined were retrieved as monophyletic in the first
cladistic analyses exclusive to Selenocosmiinae genera (Australo-Papuan selenocosmiines are outside the scope of this work and are not considered). Biogeography of all Selenocosmiinae is discussed; the group is a potential model North
Gondwanan taxon. A key to Psednocnemis species is provided.
The tarantula genus Lyrognathus Pocock 1895 is revised with three new species described: L. achilles sp. nov. from Gunung Nibung, Borneo; L. fuscus sp. nov. from Simpang Kubur, Borneo and L. lessunda sp. nov. from Lombok Island, Indonesia. The male of L. robustus Smith 1988 is described for the first time, the female is redescribed. L. crotalus
Pocock 1895 is considered a senior synonym of L. pugnax Pocock 1900. Several new characters are discussed, with Lyrognathus keyed to species. The diagnosis of the Selenocosmiinae is amended. Zoogeographic distribution, natural
history and subfamilial relationships with proposed sister genera Selenocosmia Ausserer 1871 and Coremiocnemis Simon 1892 are discussed. Lyrognathus saltator is redescribed. Selenocosmia lyra Strand 1913 is considered a nomen dubium.
The selenocosmiine genus Coremiocnemis
Simon 1892 is revised for the first time with six new species included. Five new species are from West Malaysia: C. brachyramosa
sp. nov. from Gunung Ledang, Johor; C. gnathospina
sp. nov. and C. hoggi
sp. nov. from Fraser’s Hill, Selangor; C. jeremyhuffi
sp. nov. from Tapah, Perak, Fraser’s Hill, Selangor to Pahang and C. obscura
sp. nov. from Taiping, Perak to Cameron Highlands, Pahang. C. kotacana
sp. nov. is described from Aceh Teneggara, Sumatra, being the first record of this genus outside Malaysia or Australia. A lectotype and paralectotype
are designated for C. cunicularia
(Simon 1892). All but two of Abraham’s non-type C. valida
Pocock 1895 (Abraham 1924) specimens held in both the NHM and RMBR are newly transferred to C. cunicularia
. Abraham’s two remaining specimens are removed from Coremiocnemis
. C. valida
is redescribed, its former dubious locality is resolved. Zoogeographic considerations of all species are discussed and resolved. Ontogenetic variation within Coremiocnemis
is discussed. Several new characters are introduced. Subfamilial relationships with proposed sister genera Selenocosmia
Ausserer 1871 and Lyrognathus
Pocock 1895 are discussed. A key to species is provided.
The tarantula genus Ephebopus Simon 1892 is reviewed and includes the type species, E. murinus (Walckenaer 1837),and E. uatuman Lucas, Silva & Bertani 1992, E. cyanognathus West & Marshall 2000, E. rufescens West & Marshall2000 and Ephebopus foliatus, sp. nov., from Guyana. Ephebopus violaceus Mello-Leitão 1930 is transferred to Tap-inauchenius Ausserer, where it is a senior synonym of Tapinauchenius purpureus Schmidt 1995 new synonymy. Ephebo-pus fossor Pocock 1903 is considered a nomen dubium. Ephebopus occurs in northeastern South America where it isknown only from Brazil, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana. Spiders of the genus are generally fossorial; however,Ephebopus murinus has a developmental stage that is arboreal. A cladistic analysis of the Theraphosidae retrieves theAviculariinae as monophyletic, including Avicularia Lamarck, Iridopelma Pocock 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock 1901,Tapinauchenius, Psalmopoeus Pocock, Ephebopus, Stromatopelma Karsch and Heteroscodra Pocock, having as a syna-pomorphy the well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi I–II that is very laterally extended.
Two new theraphosid spiders are described from the tropical decidious forests and thorn forests of western Mexico.
A new species of theraphosid spider, Citharacanthus meermani sp. nov., is described. It was collected in the foothills of the Mountain Pine Ridge and the Vaca Plateau, Cayo District, Belize. It is distinguished from congeners by filiform plumose setae on the basoprolateral faces of both trochantera and femora I-II, and the presence of five prominent keels on the apical division of the male embolus.
A monotypic theraphosid spider genus, Crassicrus
new genus, and a new species Crassicrus lamanai
new species, are described from the tropical dry forest of north-central Belize . Natural history and biogeographical notes are given.