The spider subfamily Schismatothelinae from Colombia is revised. One new species of Euthycaelus Simon 1889 and three new species of Schismatothele Karsch 1879 are named, as well as new geographical records provided. E. guane sp. nov. from Santander, S. hacaritama sp. nov. from Norte de Santander, S. olsoni sp. nov. from Norte de Santander and Táchira (Venezuela), and S. weinmanni sp. nov. from Cundinamarca are herein described, diagnosed and illustrated. Schismatothele is newly recorded from Colombia. Morphological aspects and diversity of the Ischnocolinae and Schismatothelinae from Colombia are discussed. An identification key to species of these subfamilies from Colombia is provided.
A new species of Proshapalopus Mello-Leit~ao, 1923, distributed in the Southwest
Colombia in the Choco Region, is described. A morphological cladistic analysis
based on the previous matrix of a Theraphosinae group confirmed the inclusion of
this species within Proshapalopus. The new species, Proshapalopus marimbai n.
sp., can be distinguished from other species of the genus mainly by the reduced
number of labial cuspules, around 40; in contrast the other species having over 100.
Males can be distinguished by the thickened femur III, presence of intermediate urticating
setae type I-III only, palpal bulb with a considerably long prolateral inferior
keel (from ventral median depression to embolus apex) and the accessory keel pronounced
distally. Females can be distinguished for lacking urticating setae type III
and the non-incrassated tibia IV. This discovery constitutes the fourth species
described for Proshapalopus and the first record for Colombia, expanding the geographical
distribution of the genus, until now known for Brazil only. Other aspects
of distribution and the phylogenetic relationship of the new species are also discussed
The genus Holothele Karsch, 1879 has a confusing taxonomic history, mainly due to a imprecise and
outdated generic diagnosis, perpetuated since its original description. In this work, we propose a new
diagnosis for the genus, redescribe the type species Holothele recta Karsch, 1879 and propose a few
taxonomic changes. Holothele longipes is here considered as a senior synonym of Holothele recta Karsch,
1879, Stichoplastus sanguiniceps F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1898, Dryptopelmides rondoni Lucas & Bücherl,
1972, Dryptopelmides ludwigi Strand, 1907. We also provide updated geographic distribution records
for Holothele longipes and propose the revalidation of Scopelobates Simon, 1903.
A new species of Pamphobeteus Pocock, 1901 is described from the Colombian Andes, Medellín, Antioquia. The biochemistry and molecular characteristics of the venom of this new species (previously identified as Pamphobeteus aff. nigricolor) has been already described. A detailed taxonomic study, comparing this species with holotypes and additional material of Pamphobeteus species, allowed us to recognize it as new, and to describe it here as Pamphobeteus verdolaga sp. nov. The male of P. verdolaga sp. nov. is distinguished by the palpal bulb with broad embolus, poorly developed apical keel (A), prolateral inferior keel (PI) and prolateral accessory keel (PAc) present but poorly developed, and retrolateral keel (R) of similar length as A. Females are distinguished by the morphology of spermatheca with a wide base and very short oval seminal receptacles, which are curved toward the center. This is the thirteenth species described in Pamphobeteus and the sixth species reported from Colombia. The species description is complemented by a molecular characterization of a partial CO1 sequence.
A new monotypic Theraphosidae genus, Kankuamo Perafán, Galvis & Pérez-Miles, gen. n., is described from Colombia, with a new type of urticating setae. These setae differ from others principally by having a small distal oval patch of lanceolate reversed barbs. Males of Kankuamo gen. n. additionally differ by having a palpal bulb organ very divergent from all known species, with many conspicuous keels dispersed across the median tegulum to the tip, mostly with serrated edges. Females differ by having spermathecae with a single notched receptacle, with two granulated lobes and several irregular sclerotized longitudinal striations. The new urticating setae, type VII, is characterized, illustrated and its releasing mechanism is discussed. It is hypothesized that these setae are the first in Theraphosinae subfamily whose release mechanism is by direct contact. Kankuamo gen. n. is described and illustrated on the basis of the type species Kankuamo marquezi Perafán, Galvis & Gutiérrez, sp. n., and their remarkable characteristics, morphological affinities and cladistic relationship are analyzed.
A new monotypic genus of Theraphosidae is described from Colombia: Aguapanela
Perafán & Cifuentes gen. nov. with only the type species Aguapanela arvi
Perafán, Cifuentes & Estrada sp. nov., from Caldas and Medellin, Antioquia, Colombian Andes. The new genus differs from other theraphosid spiders mainly in the presence of stridulatory setae on the palps and legs I and II, together with the presence of type III and IV urticating setae. Males lack a tibial apophysis on leg I and have a simple palpal bulb with the subtegulum less extended than usual in Theraphosinae, elongated curved embolus, ventrally concave, and with two prolateral keels very flat and developed on the dorsal edge. The female spermathecae have two digitiform elongated and granulated seminal receptacles attached to a semicircular wide membranous base. We describe, diagnose and illustrate the new genus and give some biological remarks. Morphological, systematic and biogeographic aspects are discussed. Chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles of its venom are analyzed.
Based on a phylogenetic analysis we revised the Chilean tarantula genera Euathlus and Paraphysa. As results of our analyses, within a wider context of South American lineages, Paraphysa is synonymous of Euathlus, and Phrixotrichus is resurrected. Euathlus and Phrixotrichus are sister genera, supported by their shared palpal organ morphology, especially at the ventral position of the distal prolateral inferior keel, also by spermathecal receptacles with a lateral chamber, and tarsal claws without teeth. Both genera are redefined based on cladistic results, and some of their constituent species are transferred. We describe four new species, and for the first time present the spermathecae of Euathlus parvulus comb. nov. All species described for both genera are diagnosed and keyed. Euathlus now includes: Euathlus antai Perafán and Pérez-Miles sp. nov., Euathlus atacama Perafán and Pérez-Miles sp. nov., Euathlus condorito Perafán and Pérez-Miles sp. nov., Euathlus manicata (Simon 1892) comb. nov., Euathlus parvulus (Pocock, 1903) comb. nov. and Euathlus truculentus L. Koch, 1875. Phrixotrichus now comprises: Phrixotrichus jara Perafán and Pérez-Miles sp. nov., Phrixotrichus scrofa (Molina, 1788) comb. nov. and Phrixotrichus vulpinus (Karsch, 1880) comb. nov. Furthermore, Paraphysa riparia Schmidt and Bolle, 2008 is synonymized with Eupalaestrus weijenberghi (Thorell, 1894), Paraphysa pulcherrimaklaasi Schmidt, 1991 is transferred to Maraca Pérez-Miles, 2006 and Paraphysa peruviana Schmidt, 2007 is considered a nomen dubium.
Three new species of the monotypic genus Melloleitaoina Gerschman & Schiapelli, 1960 are described from northern Argentina: M. mutquina sp. n., M. uru sp. n. and M. yupanqui sp. n. The female specimen originally described as M. crassifemur is not conspecific with the male holotype and thus is removed
from this species and described as M. uru sp. n.; M. crassifemur is redescribed. All species are diagnosed, illustrated and a key to species is provided.